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The Emergency Medical Services

Most common it is believed that the Emergency Medical System starts with paramedics and nurses, the truth in fact is that the Emergency System begins with “You. There are many reason’s why you may hold back from helping someone in an emergency, fear of infection, fear of Liability, fear of repercussions or even fear of helping in the wrong way.

Just remember that in Alberta you are “NOT” obligated to perform any act of First Aid even if you are certified. However we do hope that you would help or at the very least Call 911.

  • The Sooner you start CPR for a casualty that is not breathing the sooner their brain can get life saving blood and oxygen.
  • Even if your nervous calling 911 is still helping. Emergency workers will only come and help if you call 911.
  • 911 is free – Don’t worry about cost, a person’s life is “Priceless

For any emergency we teach our students the 3 rules of First Aid to help them understand what is truly important during “any” emergency.

  1. Rule #1 – Protect YOURSELFYour safety is most important
  2. Rule #2 – Call 911If it doesn’t look right, it probably isn’t!
  3. Rule #3 – Don’t Waste Time & Treat What You See

911 with help you if you forget how to do basic treatments, splints, slings, bandages and other things are easily done with simple guidance. Don’t worry, there are no wrong questions when talking to 911 “They are there to help you, Help others!”


This material is for Information / Educational purposes only and is taken from the Canadian Medical Association. It should not be used in place of medical advice, instruction, and/or treatment. If you have questions, speak to your doctor or appropriate healthcare provider.

In any emergency just remember to Protect Yourself!!! Call 911!!! Don’t Waste Time!!!

Learn First Aid Today, Save a Life Tomorrow, let first aid training in Edmonton be your Saving Grace

#FirstAidCourseEdmonton #BasicLifeSupport #BLS #BLSforHCP #BCLS #BCLSCourseEdmonton #ACLS #AdvancedCardiovascularLifeSupport #EMR #EmergencyMedicalResponder #ITLS

Cysts – What are they?

What is a Cyst? This article is designed to help you understand more about yourself, others, and the medical world around you. Many view the word “Cyst” as being unclean, or infectious, or disease bearing. The truth about Cycts is actually quite far from those.

What are Cysts?

Cysts are one of the most common benign tumors of the skin. They present as a round, rubbery, mobile mass that stretches out the overlaying skin and is tethered to the surface of the skin by a pore or “punctum”, this “punctumacts like a tether that allows the Cyst to “float“ more often than not in the surrounding bodily fluids.

  • Cysts can be found “anywhere on or in the body, and anyone can have them.
  • The term “Cystrefers to a fluid-filled structure of cells, whereas a tumor consist of a mass of abnormal cells with abnormal growth potential. Cysts are not associated with tumors typically as they have a very thin rim surrounding the fluid and may be popped, whereas a tumor would have a thickened rim that surrounds it that expands with time.
  • Types of Cysts – arachnoid, colloid, dermoid, epidermis, pineal, cervical, breast, ganglion, etc…

What causes a Cyst?

Cysts frequently result from a plugging of the pore. A sac of skin forms and gets larger as it becomes filled with keratin, a component of your skin cells, CSF “Cerebral Spinal Fluid“, colloid, or blood. Keratin is a pasty, whitish material that sometimes can be expressed from the cyst and tends to have a foul odor.

Is a Cyst Harmful?

Often No, however there are circumstances where they could cause damage, lack of blood flow, or harmful pressure to build up on the surrounding tissue and organs. Normally cysts are “benign” and do not develop into cancers. Once in a while, they may rupture and become inflamed which results in redness, swelling and pain in the area. Sometimes pus will drain. To avoid inflammation or infection of a cysts, it is best “not” to squeeze it.

Does a Cyst need to be removed?

The majority of cysts cause no problems and therefore do not need to be removed, it is the location of the cyst and the level of discomfort that will dictate your desire to have them removed. On occasion, a cyst may become objectionably large, interfere with function, get inflamed or are symptomatic. In these cases, removal is achieved by local surgical excision. Small, asymptomatic cysts may be removed electively by contracting your physician to arrange an elective removal. “Always consult your physician before making body modifications.

  • Very often, cysts do not produce any symptoms and do not enlarge over time. If a cyst is not causing symptoms and is not thought to be associated with a tumor, you might never develop a problem with the cyst. An operation to remove the cyst might carry a greater risk than living with the cyst. Your doctor can help you weight the risks of “watching and waiting” with the risks of undergoing surgery.
  • How can a doctor tell if the cyst is not cancerous? A CT “Cat Scan” or particularly, an MRI scan of a cyst generally shows no solid or nodular components that could suggest an associated “malignant tumor”. Sometimes, when a cyst appears benign but the doctor cannot be 100% certain, repeated radiological studies over time will be recommended. A malignant tumor would be expected to grow over time, whereas a benign cyst might not.
  • Is radiation therapy ever used to treat a Cyst? In general, radiation is used to kill dividing cells “cancerous growth. The fluid inside a cyst does not contain dividing cells, and the cells forming the walls of most cysts “including arachnoid, colloid, dermoid, epidermis, and pineal cysts” are not dividing. If the cyst is suspected of being malignant or tumor related a pointed dose of radiation may be injected “into” the cyst to destroy the cells within, however this is rare and your physician would know more.

Will I develop more Cysts?

You may develop more cysts over time and there is no way to prevent this from happening. You may also only ever have one cyst in your lifetime. Cysts have many factors which allow the cells to grow in such a manor, environment, radiation exposure, mould, bacteria, viruses, the reason why a cyst would appear is quite vast and unfortunately not always apparent.

In general, if the wall of the cyst is completely removed, the chance of the cyst recurrence I quite low. If the cyst is drained but the “bubble” or sack that contained the fluid is left intact, the odds of fluid re-accumulating are much higher as the cell walls may “heal” and reseal fluid within.

Do I have a disease if I have a Cyst?

  • Answer – “No

A cyst is a random event that does have some factors too their appearance. Typically a Cyst does not have an associated disease or cause, they are a random occurrence that anyone could have.

This material is for information purposes only and is taken from the Canadian Medical Association. It should not be used in place of medical advice, instruction, and/or treatment. If you have questions, speak to your doctor or appropriate healthcare provider.

In any emergency just remember to Protect Yourself!!! Call 911!!! Don’t Waste Time!!!

Learn First Aid Today, Save a Life Tomorrow, let first aid training in Edmonton be your Saving Grace

#FirstAidCourseEdmonton #BasicLifeSupport #BLS #BLSforHCP #BCLS #BCLSCourseEdmonton #ACLS #AdvancedCardiovascularLifeSupport #EMR #EmergencyMedicalResponder #ITLS #Cyst #WhatAreCysts #AreCystsCancer


What is Hydrocephalus?

Hydrocephalus is a condition in which there has been an excess build up of CSF “Cerebrospinal Fluid” a clear fluid surrounding the brain. The excessive accumulation of CSF results in an abnormal dilation of the spaces in the brain called “Ventricles”, this dilation causes harmful pressure to build up on the brain and connective tissues.

  • Hydrocephalus “Water on the Brain”, in Greek literally means “watery head”, “Hydro” meaning water, and “Cephalus” referring to the head.
  • Hydrocephalus can happen at ANY age
  • Hydrocephalus is life threatening and has a 75% chance of causing long lasting brain damage and motor disability, and a 30% mental disability rate.
  • More than 50% of hydrocephalus is congenital “present at birth

What are Ventricles?

The ventricular system is a set of four interconnected cavities (ventricles) in the brain, where the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is produced. Within each ventricle is a region of choroid plexus, a network of ependymal cells involved in the production of CSF. The ventricular system is continuous with the central canal of the spinal cord (from the fourth ventricle) allowing for the flow of CSF to circulate. All of the ventricular system and the central canal of the spinal cord are lined with ependyma, a specialized form of epithelium.

What is CSF “Cerebrospinal Fluid”?

Cerebrospinal Fluid, the clear fluid surrounding the brain and spinal cord has three critical functions:

  • It acts as a “Shock absorber” for the brain and spinal cord to protect the brains connective tissue from harmful impact damage and excess movement.
  • It acts as a river to flow nutrients to the brain and remove waste
  • It flows between the cranium and spine to regulate changes in pressure within the brain.

Common Causes

A variety of medical problems can cause hydrocephalus. In many children the problem is there at “birth”, this kind of hyrocephalis is referred to as “congenital”. Most cases of congenital hydrocephalus are thought to be caused by a complex interaction of genetic and environmental factors “Exposure to radiation, mould, virus, bacteria, genetic defect, impact damage in utero, Car accident and so on

  • Aqueductal Obstruction “Stenosis” – The most common cause of congenital hydrocephalus is obstruction “narrowing or blockage” of the cerebral aqueduct “a long, narrow passageway between the third and fourth ventricle in the brain.NO FEVER
  • Neural Tube Defects, or MyelomeningoceleSpina Bifida, meaning “Open spine”, actually refers to the condition in which the structures of vertebrae, muscles, ligaments, etc… supporting and protecting the spinal cord are impaired, not the spinal cord itself.
  • Intraventricular Haemorrhage – Intraventricular haemorrhage is an acquired form of hydrocephalus and most frequently affects premature newborns. It occurs when small blood vessels lying alongside the ventricular lining of the brain rupture. This can lead to scarring of the ventricles or plug the arachnoid villi sites of CSF absorption.
  • Meningitis & Bacterial / Viral Exposure – Meningitis is an inflammation of the membranes “Meninges” of the brain and spinal cord. It may be caused by bacterial infections or, less frequently, viral infections. FEVER
  • Head Trauma – A head trauma can damage the brains tissues, nerves or blood vessels. Blood from these ruptured vessels may enter the CSF pathways and cause blockage or restricted flow.
  • Tumours – In children, brain tumors most commonly occur in the back of the brain “posterior fossa”. as a tumor grows it may fill or compress the ventricles blocking the flow of CSF.
  • Cysts – Arachnoid cysts are congenital in origin and may occur anywhere in the brain. In children, they are often located in the back of the brain and in the region of the third ventricle.
  • Dandy-Walker Syndrome – Dandy-Walker Syndrome is where the fourth ventricle “last ventricle to the spine” is enlarged because of partial or complete closure of its outlets “no drainage of CSF”. Associated with developmental defects.

Symptoms “How to recognise it

“If you suspect Hyrdocephalus DO NOT HESITATE, the Childs life is in Danger!

In Infant age 0-1: Abnormal Enlargement of Babe’s head, soft spot “fontanel” is tense and bulging: scalp can appear thin “Stretched due to the swelling” prominent scalp veins, NO FEVER in congenital hydrocephalus, vomiting, drowsiness, irritability, downward deviation of baby’s eyes “Sun-setting eyes”, seizure, poor appetite.

In Child age 1-8: Headache “Rubbing at head or ears“, Nausea, vomiting, “NO FEVER in congenital hydrocephalus” lethargy, limp movements, unable to stay awake, poor coordination, change in personality, loss of motor functions, seizure and poor appetite, From Birth-Abnormal Enlargement of Babe’s head.

In Adult age 8+: Headache, difficulty remaining awake or waking up, loss of coordination or balance, bladder control problems, impaired “double vision”, cognitive impairment

Elderly – Loss of coordination or balance, shuffling gait, memory loss, headache, bladder control loss, forgetfulness, migraine like symptoms. Nausea, vomiting, drowsiness.

What can you do?

Take them to the Hospital Immediately! Hydrocephalus can easily be misdiagnosed as a viral infection and be prescribed antibiotics “This will not help in congenital hydrocephalusNO FEVER and lead to potential for increased brain damage. Hydrocephalus needs immediate surgery to minimize brain damage and potential for death.

Diagnosing Hydrocephalus

Parents should remember that this is “Not” your fault”

Your Doctor will recommend a course of treatment based on what they find, they will review medical history and perform examinations including a complete neurological examination with diagnostic testing. “Do not be afraid to ask questions regarding symptoms / options / treatments”, anything that you can think of to help narrow down the cause can impact the treatments available. The neurological examination will also help to determine the severity of the child’s condition. Further tests such as ultrasound “if the patient is an infant”, computed tomography “CT or CAT scan”, or a magnetic resonance imaging “MRI” may be ordered. The more your neurosurgeon knows the more likely the chance to minimize brain damage and death. They will also ask for information regarding head circumference at birth along with birth weight, health, defects and head development.


Hydrocephalus can be treated in only three or four ways with current medical technology “2018“. The problem area may be treated directly “removing the cause of CSF obstruction”, or indirectly by diverting the fluid somewhere else. In some cases, two procedures are performed, one to divert the CSF temporarily, and another on a later stage to remove the cause of the obstruction.

  1. Shunt – Often in the emergency setting hydrocephalus is treated at the beginning with a “Shunt”. A shunt is a flexible but sturdy silastic tube. A shunt system consist of the shunt, a catheter, and a valve. One end of the catheter is placed within a ventricle inside the brain, but also may be placed potentially within a cyst or site close to the spinal cord. The other end of the catheter is commonly placed within the abdominal cavity, but may also be placed at other sites within the body so excess CSF can be absorbed. “Shunt systems are not perfect devices” Complications may include mechanical failure, infections, obstructions, length, improper flow “too much or too little CSF” or deterioration. Each time the Shunt has a malfunction potential for brain damage increases exponentially.
  2. Obstruction Removal – Neurosurgery is performed to remove the blockage, cyst, tumor that is causing the blockage of CSF flow. CT – Cat scans and MRI’s are needed to see if this is an option, your Neurosurgeon will know once they have all the data and information for them to assess weather removing the obstruction is possible.
  3. Endoscopic Third Ventriculostomy “ETV” – This surgery involves making a hole in the floor of the third ventricle to allow free flow of spinal fluid into the basil cisterns for absorption of CSF. Many neurosurgeons “do not” perform ETV on children below the age of 2 due to the failure rate of up to 40%. However, ETV has the benefit of consistent pressure, flow and the lack of non natural parts within the body, this reduces the chance of malfunction leading to brain damage or death. Depending on the hydrocephalus ETV has a patency rate for up to five years with a 50%-80% no malfunction rate. “Candidacy” – ETV is clearly appropriate for treating “obstructive non-communication hydrocephalus It is controversial as to weather it is effective in treating non-obstructive communication hydrocephalus. Although some neurosurgeons have used it successfully in these cases with a 1.0% infection rate.
  4. Endoscopic Third Ventriculostomy & Choriod Plexus Cauterization “ETV & CPC” – This technique combines ETV with a procedure called Choroid Plexus Cauterization “CPC”. CPC is where your neurosurgeon in the middle of the ETV inserts a specialized tool “wire” to cauterize the CP tissue beginning at the right foramen of Monro, and following it back to the typically mobile glomus choroideum in the atrium. Your neurosurgeon will have more details to explain the procedure, however by combining ETV and CPC the chances of successfully holding proper Intracranial CSF fluid pressure increase, infection rates decrease to 1.0% or less and raise the success rate of the procedures in general.

Communication VS Non-Communicating Deffinition

  • Communicating – Communicating Hydrocephalus is when the flow of CSF is blocked after exiting the ventricles, however CSF is still able to flow between the ventricles but is blocked from draining out.
  • Non-Communicating – Non-Communicating also known as “Obstructive” Hydrocephalus occurs from “Aqueductal stenosis” a narrowing of the tube “aquaduct of Sylvius” that flows between the 3rd ventricle and 4th ventricle before exiting to the spine. “This is the most common cause of Hydrocephalus

Long Term Outcome

There is Hope” – The prognosis for patients diagnosed with hydrocephalus is difficult to predict, although there is some correlation between the specific “cause” of the hydrocephalus, the time between when symptoms began, diagnosis & treatment, as well as the age of the patients can influence the outcome. Brain Damage and complications are further compounded by the presence of associated disorders, the degree to which decompression “relief of CSF pressure or build-up” following shunt placement can also further complicate risks. Parents and guardians should be aware that up to 70% of hydrocephalus patience suffer from both cognitive and physical development disorders.

However “There is Hope” – Those affected by hydrocephalus benefit from rehabilitation therapies and educational interventions, many children go on to lean normal lives with few limitations. Treatment by an interdisciplinary team of medical professionals, rehabilitation specialists, and educational experts are critical to a positive outcome.

Although most children with hydrocephalus are within the normal range of intelligence, most experience “specific” learning difficulties. Immediate memory and auditory/verbal information may be intact, however, there is a rapid loss of information over time and difficulty in retrieving the appropriate bit of information due to brain tissue damage. Most students find it hard to organize themselves, plan ahead and think flexibly. In addition, some may experience difficulty in understanding the passage of time or understand when matters are urgent.

There are many resources out there to help you guide your child through this difficult emergency. For more information contact your physician and don’t be afraid to ask questions or seek support groups.

This material is for information purposes only and is taken from the Hydrocephalus Association and Hydrocephalus Foundation. It should not be used in place of medical advice, instruction, and/or treatment. If you have questions, speak to your doctor or appropriate healthcare provider.

In any emergency just remember to Protect Yourself!!! Call 911!!! Don’t Waste Time!!!

Learn First Aid Today, Save a Life Tomorrow, let first aid training in Edmonton be your Saving Grace

#FirstAidCourseEdmonton #H2SAlive #BasicLifeSupport #BLS #BLSforHCP #BCLS #BCLSCourseEdmonton #ACLS #AdvancedCardiovascularLifeSupport #EMR #EmergencyMedicalResponder #ITLS #Hydrocephalus #EndoscopicThirdVentriculostomy

“HELP!!!” Emergency Numbers of Alberta – Knowledge worth Knowing

In Alberta Canada many people don’t know what “HELP” is available during an emergency. Who would you call if there was a wild or strange animal in your yard or in the neighborhood? If I am alone and frightened, depressed, scared of someone or something I cant explain who can I call? What is the Poison Control number? Animal Control? Fire? Ambulance? Police? These questions we’ll address as the Canadian Government has put some “Quick Access Numbers” into use that will help. We’ll explain below what each one is and how to utilize them.


In Alberta Canada like many other provinces 911 handles a multitude of Emergency Related phone calls. For this reason the Canadian Government has linked 911 to many other emergency hot lines to help streamline the process of getting Emergency Service Workers in touch with you. For this reason, This will help you as you only need to remember 911 and the 911 Dispatcher will help get you to the right emergency connection line. 911 is linked to:

  • Animal Control,
  • Poison Control,
  • Police,
  • Ambulance,
  • Fire
  • CSIS.


Health Link” a 24/7 call center provides a number of clinical services including tele-triage and health advice, navigation services and online content support for all Albertans by calling 811 or by using one of its companion web products, MyHealth.Alberta.ca or informAlberta.ca. The specific services include:

  • Symptom-based nurse triage and health information
  • System navigation
  • Dementia Advice Service
  • Catch-A-Break Osteoporosis screening
  • AlbertaQuits Tobacco Helpline
  • Addictions information and referral
  • Central Access to specialized services
  • Referrals to clinical services including Specialized Medication Advice and Dietitian Services




Phone Service Line” Will not help during emergencies


Traffic Information – Transportation Canada “Alberta” has put this number into service to help those on the highway remain safe and in the know. Road conditions can change rapidly as our weather changes along with driver conditions. This number will help you get in touch with an Automated / Representative that can help give you “Journey Management Options and risk levels” Drive safe

  • RememberStay Alive, Don’t Drink & Drive or Toke & Drive


Directory Services” This is a phone service which will connect you with the Canada 411 Phone Directory.


Municipal Services” 311 provides citizens with the choice of accessing Municipal information and services. 311 Citizen Services is your single point of contact for local government information and non-emergency services. Whether you’re a resident, a business owner, or a visitor, your connection to The City is at your finger tips. Non-English-speaking callers may request the assistance of an interpreter. The 311 agent will connect with an external interpretive service to assist with the call. The interpretive service offers assistance in more than 150 languages.


Community Health & Social Services” 211 is a free, confidential, multilingual, 24 hour information and referral system. 211 provides information on government and community based health and social services. 211 is available across the province. 211 can help with day-to-day needs and coping with stressful situations before they escalate into a crisis.

211 can provide support in the following situations:

• When you are looking for home care supports for seniors or individuals with disabilities

• When you are trying to find a job

• When you are looking for affordable childcare

• When you want to know where you can volunteer or donate your second-hand items

• When you don’t know where to go for alcohol and/or drug detoxification

• If you are thinking of post-secondary schooling and need to complete your high school diploma or find out how to apply for student loans

• If you are having a tough time finding enough money for food, rent, and other costs

• If you recently moved to Canada and need support connecting to resources

• If you’re a service provider and looking for resources for a client

“#377” -City of Edmonton Only –

Non Emergency Police Dispatch” – Edmonton Police are trying to reduce the volume of 911 calls to allow true emergency calls to go through unimpeded. With High call volume 911 may be forced to put you on hold, to some during an emergency this could be fatal. To reduce the risk of fatal non connection with 911 the Alberta Government and the Edmonton City Police “EPS” created #377 to handle all Non-Life Threatening Calls that require police services.

#377 in Edmonton Handles:

  • Thefts / Mischief
  • Assaults
  • Break and Enters into homes/businesses
  • Child Abuse/Welfare concerns
  • Disturbances/Noise complaints
  • Missing Persons
  • Sexual Assaults
  • Property damage collisions where vehicles are not drivable
  • Neighbor disputes
  • Family disputes
  • Frauds over $5,000.00
  • Suspicious persons/vehicles
  • Weapons/Gun complaints

“This material is for information purposes only. It should not be used in place of medical advice, instruction, and/or treatment. If you have questions, speak to your doctor or appropriate healthcare provider.”

In any emergency just remember to Protect Yourself!!! Call 911!!! Don’t Waste Time!!!

Learn First Aid Today, Save a Life Tomorrow, let first aid training in Edmonton be your Saving Grace

#FirstAidCourseEdmonton #H2SAlive #BasicLifeSupport #BLS #BLSforHCP #H2sAliveEdmonton #EnformH2S #BCLS #BCLSCourseEdmonton #ACLS #AdvancedCardiovascularLifeSupport #EMR #EmergencyMedicalResponder #ITLS #NineOneOne #EightOneOne #TwoOneOne

Hand, Foot & Mouth Disease: What you need to know

Hand, foot and mouth disease is a very common viral disease of childhood which is easily passed from person to person. It usually causes a mild illness but rarely causes serious illness. It is not related to the foot and mouth disease that affects animals. Good hygiene helps prevent infection.

What is hand foot and mouth disease?

Hand, foot and mouth disease is generally a mild illness caused by “Enteroviruses”, including “Coxsackieviruses”. It is usually not a serious illness and is not related to the foot and mouth disease that affects animals. It mainly occurs in children under 10 years of age but can also occur in older children and adults.

What are the symptoms?

Hand, foot and mouth disease starts with blisters that begin as small red dots which later become ulcers. Blisters appear inside the cheeks, gums, and on the sides of the tongue, as well as on the palms of the hands and soles of the feet. In infants, blisters can sometimes be seen in the groin area. Blisters usually last for 7-10 days.

  • Children can sometimes have a low fever, sore throat, tiredness, feel off or melancholy and may be hungry for a day or two.
  • Very rarely, “Enteroviruses” can cause other illnesses that affect the heart, brain, lining of the brain “meningitis”, lungs, or eyes.

How is it spread?

Hand, foot and mouth disease is usually spread by person to person contactDirect Contact”. The virus is spread from the faeces of an infected person to the mouth of the next person by contaminated hands. It is also spread by secretions “saliva, spittle, sneeze, cough, nasal secretions” from the mouth or respiratory system, and be direct contact with the fluid from the blisters.

  • The virus usually takes between three and five days after contact with an infected person before blisters appear. The virus can remain in faeces from 4 to 8 weeks “Up to 2 months or longer in some cases“.

Who is at risk?

The viruses that cause “Hand, foot & mouth disease” are common and normally only affect children up to the age of 10, however some adults may be affected in rare cases.

  • Many adults, including pregnant women, are often exposed to these viruses without symptoms. There is no clear evidence of risk to unborn babies from hand, foot and mouth disease. However infected mothers can pass the infection onto newborn babies who lack the ability to fend of the virus.

Daycare / Childcare / After or Pre- school settings – Outbreaks may occur in childcare settings “more than 3 confirmed cases. “You do not need to report Hand, foot and mouth disease to AHS or the CDC“, however the Daycare / school / childcare facility MUST report the illness or disease to the Parents of the children attending the facility or those who may be affected and give information on: “what to look for, how to treat the illness and how to prevent the spread Hand, foot and mouth disease.

How is it prevented?

  1. Hand washing & Good hygiene is the best protection. Wash hands with soap and water after going to the toilet, before eating, after wiping noses, and after changing nappies / diapers or soiled clothing.
  2. Avoid sharing cups, eating utensils, items of personal hygiene “for example: towels, scrub brushes, face towels, loofah, toothbrushes”, and clothing “especially shoes, socks & underwear”.
  3. Hand sanitizer and surface surface sanitizer
  4. Thoroughly wash any soiled clothing and any surfaces that may have been contaminated

CLEANING – Hand, foot & Mouth is easily destroyed with Soap & Water, using solution of ¼ bleach & water, as well as alcohol based cleaning solutions.

  • Teach children about cough & sneeze etiquetteCover your mouth when you cough / Sneeze into your sleeve” Coughing / Sneezing into an elbow is better than coughing into your hands.
  • Dispose of used tissues in the bin straight away, then wash your hands afterwards with soap and water.

How is it diagnosed?

Your doctor can diagnose hand, foot and mouth disease based on the symptoms, laboratory tests are “not” usually necessary as this disease should” resolve itself within 5-10 days.

How is it treated?

Usually NO treatment is needed other than wound care.” Pharmaceuticals “Children’s Grade” to help lower fever and discomfort is available and does help with discomfort. “Do NOT give children aspirin

  • Allow blisters to dry out naturally. The blisters should not be deliberately burst because the fluid within them is infectious. “Wash the affected area with soap and water, let dry with no ointment overnight”.
  • Topical antibiotic ointment like “Polysporin” may be used during the day ease tightness of the wounds, and help remove hard crusts that may appear, however the wounds must dry out overnight. “No Band-Aids or covers should be used
  • Make sure young children are drinking enough as painful mouth sores can make some children reluctant to swallow liquids.

What are the signs of a SERIOUS infection?

Sings that an infant or older child might have a more serious form of hand, foot and mouth disease include any of the following:

  1. Persistent Fever “38C or above for 72 hours or more
  2. Abnormal movements / jerking movements
  3. Rapid breathing
  4. Excessive tiredness, drowsiness
  5. Excessive irritability
  6. Difficulty walking

If any of these signs are present then the child should be seen by a doctor urgently even if they have been checked earlier in the illness.

How long should children stay away from Childcare & School settings?

Children with hand, foot and mouth disease should be excluded from school or childcare facilities until “Their blisters have dried-up”, and “anyrashif present” has gone and “anyfever has settled.

  • Often Hand, foot & mouth will run its course within 5-10 days, but may last up to 2 weeks with possibly contamination in the stool up to 2 months.
  • A child will only need to stay away from public places as long as the symptoms present themselves, if the child maintains good hygiene and hand washing and keeps their hands to themselves they may be in public places, “hand washing is the key

What is the public health response?

As mentioned earlier, Hand, foot and mouth disease is not a modifiable disease under the Public Health Act. HOWEVER, to help prevent spread, “Parents / Guardians / Teachers / Day-Care workers” should report the illness to the director of the childcare centre or the school principal so that affected students / parents are notified on the illness.

Further information

In Alberta Canada you can contact the “Health Link by phoning 811” at anytime to speak to a Dedicated Health Care Professional. They will help answer your questions and go through the illness signs and symptoms with you..

This information was taken From Center of Disease Control “CDC” (Hand, Foot & Mouth Disease) Information slip.

“This material is for information purposes only. It should not be used in place of medical advice, instruction, and/or treatment. If you have questions, speak to your doctor or appropriate healthcare provider.”

In any emergency just remember to Protect Yourself!!! Call 911!!! Don’t Waste Time!!!

Learn First Aid Today, Save a Life Tomorrow, let first aid training in Edmonton be your Saving Grace

#FirstAidCourseEdmonton #H2SAlive #BasicLifeSupport #BLS #BLSforHCP #H2sAliveEdmonton #EnformH2S #BCLS #BCLSCourseEdmonton #ACLS #AdvancedCardiovascularLifeSupport #EMR #EmergencyMedicalResponder #ITLS #HFM #HandMouthAndFootDisease

C-Diff “Clostridium Difficile” What you need to know.

What is Clostridium difficile infection?

Clostridium difficile “pronounced Klo-Strid-ee-um dif-uh-seel”, also known as “C,diff” “See-dif”, is a germ that can cause diarrhea. Most cases of C.Diff infection occur in people taking antibiotics. The most common symptoms of C.Diff infection includes:

  • Watery Diarrhea
  • Fever
  • Loss of appetite
  • Nausea
  • Belly Pain and Tenderness

Who is most likely to get C.Diff infection?

The elderly, very young and people with certain medical problems have the greatest chance of getting C.Diff. C.Diff spores can live outside the human body for a very long time and may be found on things in the environment such as bed linens, bed rails, bathroom fixtures, and medical equipment. C.Diff infection can spread from person to person on contaminated equipment and on the hands of doctors, nurses, other healthcare providers and visitors.

Can C.Diff be fatal?

Yes, at the moment the CDC has calculated approximately a %6.0 mortality rate. Fatality due to C.Diff has been attributed to organ failure due to dehydration or complications with other current underlying medical conditions such as immune compromised or age.

Can C.Diff infection be treated?

Yes, there are antibiotics that can be used to treat C.Diff. In some severe cases, a person might have to have surgery to remove the infected part of the intestines. This surgery is needed in only 1 or 2 out of every 100 persons with C.Diff.

What are some of the things that Hospitals are doing ot prevent C.Diff infections?

To prevent C.Diff infections, Health Care Providers and General Public can:

  • Clean their hands with soap and water or an alcohol-based hand rub before and after caring for someone with C.Diff. This can prevent C.Diff and other germs from being passed from pone person to another on their hands.
  • Carefully clean rooms and equipment that have been used for someone with C.Diff
  • Use “Contact Precautions” to prevent C.Diff from spreading to other people

   “Contact Precautions Mean”

  • Whenever possible, people with C.Diff with have a single room or share a room only with someone else who also has C.Diff
  • Wear gloves and wear a PPE gown over clothing while taking care of someone with C.Diff
  • Visitors may also wear PPE gowns and gloves to prevent spore spread.
  • When leaving the room, visitors must remove their PPE gown and gloves and wash their hands
  • In Hospital, Patience with C.Diff are asked to stay in their hospital rooms as much as possible. They should not go to common areas, such as gift shops, cafeterias, living rooms, common rooms.
  • Hospitals are advised to only give antibiotics when it is “necessary

“Make sure all Health Care Professionals and those providing care clean their hands with soap and water or an alcohol-based hand rub “before” and after caring for you”


  1. Only take antibiotics as prescribed by your doctor “follow the directions
  2. Be sure you clean your own hands often, especially after using the bathroom and before eating
  3. Keep your bathroom clean and close the toilet lid before flushing to reduce the spread of spores given off by fecal matter.

Can my friends and family get C.Diff when they visit me?

Yes – C.Diff infection usually does not occur in people who are not taking antibiotics, however those with compromised immune systems, previous underlying medical conditions or infants are susceptible. Visitors are not likely to get C.Diff but can transport it to someone who may be susceptible. To make it safer for visitors, they should:

  • Clean their hands before they enter your room and as they leave your room.
  • Avoid using the ill persons bathroom and avoid contact with surfaces which may hold fecal matter.
  • Avoid contact with infants or those who could be ill already

If I have C.Diff what do I need to do when I go home from the Hospital?

Once you are back at home, you can return to your normal routine. Often, the diarrhea will be better or completely gone before you go home. This makes giving C.Diff to other people much less likely. However there are a few things you should do to lower the chances of developing C.Diff infection in yourself again or spreading it to others as C.Diff can survive up to 5 months outside of the host.

If you are given a prescription to treat C.Diff, take the medicine “exactly” as prescribed by your doctor and pharmacist. Do not take half-doses or stop before you run out. You may feel better but the bacteria is still in your body.

Was your hands often, especially after going to the bathroom and before preparing food.

People who live with you should wash their hands often as well as sleep in separate rooms “avoid sharing toiletry’s

If you develop more diarrhea after you get home, tell your doctor immediately!

If your symptoms get worse at any time or you notice new symptoms from the list above, call your doctor or Health Link “811 in Alberta”. You can also call the “Health Link Alberta 24/7 if you have questions about C.Diff or any of the information in this handout.

This information was taken From Center of Disease Control “CDC” (Clostridium Difficile) Information slip.

“This material is for information purposes only. It should not be used in place of medical advice, instruction, and/or treatment. If you have questions, speak to your doctor or appropriate healthcare provider.”

In any emergency just remember to Protect Yourself!!! Call 911!!! Don’t Waste Time!!!

Learn First Aid Today, Save a Life Tomorrow, let first aid training in Edmonton be your Saving Grace

#FirstAidCourseEdmonton #H2SAlive #BasicLifeSupport #BLS #BLSforHCP #H2sAliveEdmonton #EnformH2S #BCLS #BCLSCourseEdmonton #ACLS #AdvancedCardiovascularLifeSupport #EMR #EmergencyMedicalResponder #ITLS #Cdiff #ClostridiumDifficile

Concussion “Mild Traumatic Brain Injury” & Your Child

A concussion, also called a mild traumatic brain injury, is a head injury caused by the brain being shaken around inside the skull after a direct blow to the head, or a sudden jerking of the head or neck when the body is hit. Your child does not have to pass out “lose consciousness” to have a concussion. Some children will have symptoms of a concussion, such as passing out or forgetting what happened right before the injury, but others won’t.

Common Causes:

  • Falls
  • Sports injuries “Impact
  • Physical Assault “Shaken Baby Syndrome
  • Motor Vehicle Collision

When should my child go to the hospital?

There is more risk of complications such as bleeding and / or swelling in the brain in the first 24 to 48 hours after the injury. However, complications can happen even weeks later.

Call 911 or Go to the Hospital immediately if:

  • Becomes less alert, won’t wake up, or is hard to wake up
  • Doesn’t want to eat or nurse
  • Loses a learned skill “for example: Toilet Training
  • Cry becomes high-pitched or the cry changes
  • Is acting differently
  • Is cranky or fussy
  • Blood or fluid coming from the nose or ears, or bruising around the eyes or ears
  • Has or acts like he or she has a headache
  • Speech is slurred or has trouble speaking
  • Loss of vision, blurry vision, or double vision
  • Sudden weakness on one side of the body
  • More than 2 episodes of uncontrollable or forceful vomiting that won’t stop
  • Seizure activity “such as abnormal movements, loss of consciousness, convulsions or gazing distantly off without being able to be stimulated or respond

What to Expect After the Injury:

The First 48 Hours

Make sure someone stays with your child for the first 24 hours after the concussion.

Rest & Sleep

Try to get your child to rest for the first 24 hours, it’s one of the best ways to help the brain heal. “It’s OK to let your child sleep

You “Do Not” have to wake up your child every 2 to 3 hours in the first 24 hours. If the doctor has asked that youDo wake them” your child should wake up easily and not show any of the warning sings previously listed.

Limit “visual stimulus”, reading, television, video games, etc within the first 48 hours. The brain “needs to rest” so that it can heal, extra stimulus may make the symptoms worse. It may also be advisable for your child to take time off from school.

Keep your child away from bright lights, loud noises or crowds for the first 48 hours, as these can make symptoms worse as well.


After a concussion, start your child on clear fluids such as “water, apple juice, ginger ale” and slowly go back to a normal diet. The fluids will help replenish needed sugar levels and help stimulate brain function, as vomiting is common in the first 24 hours fluids help keep your child hydrated and make vomiting easier.

Managing Pain:

To manage the pain “Headache”, you can help your child take “acetaminophen “such as Tylenol” for pain, use the proper dosage for the age / size of your child ‘Directions will be on the back of the bottleTalk to your doctor about using products with ASA or NSAID’s in them “such as Aspirin, Ibuprofen, Advil or Motrin” these medications can increase the risk of bleeding.

The First 4 Weeks – The symptoms below are common after a mild brain injury. They usually get better on their own within a few weeks and should not last longer than a month.

  • Feeling tired “abnormal to the casualty
  • Problems falling or staying asleep
  • Feeling confused, poor concentration, or slow to answer questions
  • Feeling dizzy, poor balance, or poor coordination
  • Being sensitive to light
  • Being sensitive to sounds
  • Ringing in the ears
  • A mild headache, sometimes with nausea and/or vomiting
  • Being irritable, having mood swings, or feeling somewhat sad or “down

While your Child’s Brain is Healing

Most children recover from the concussion. The symptoms can take days to weeks to go away. Your child should start to feel better within a few days and be back to normal within about 4 weeks.

If your child isn’t feeling better within a few days after the injury “See your Doctor

Expect your child to feel tired as he or she becomes more active. Make sure your child rests as needed.

If you find your child’s cranky or has mood swings, “see your Doctor if your worried

Some children may find it hard to concentrate while their brain is healing, so make sure your child goes back to their normal activities slowly. Go back to school for half days at first, and increase as tolerated.

Ask your doctor when its okay for your child to play sports again. “The brain needs time to heal

If your child plays sports, make sure the coach/instructor/team-mates know about your child’s concussion. “Avoid further head injuries

Use medicine as prescribed” See your doctor if your child still needs pain medicine for a headache longer than 2 weeks after the injury.

If your child’s Symptoms get worse at any time or you notice new symptoms from the list above, or from the first segment, call your doctor or Health Link “811 in Alberta”. You can also call the “Health Link Alberta 24/7 if you have questions about concussion/mild traumatic brain injury or any of the information in this handout.

This information was taken From Alberta Health Services “Concussion (Mild Traumatic Brain Injury) Information slip.

“This material is for information purposes only. It should not be used in place of medical advice, instruction, and/or treatment. If you have questions, speak to your doctor or appropriate healthcare provider.”

In any emergency just remember to Protect Yourself!!! Call 911!!! Don’t Waste Time!!!

Learn First Aid Today, Save a Life Tomorrow, let first aid training in Edmonton be your Saving Grace

#FirstAidCourseEdmonton #H2SAlive #BasicLifeSupport #BLS #BLSforHCP #H2sAliveEdmonton #EnformH2S #BCLS #BCLSCourseEdmonton #ACLS #AdvancedCardiovascularLifeSupport #EMR #EmergencyMedicalResponder #ITLS #Concussion #HeadInjury #ChildhoodHeadTrauma

Whooping Cough “Pertussis”

Whooping cough can be a life threatening infection that affects Babies, toddlers and young children adversely. In babies whooping cough can lead to a life threatening symptom known as “Apnea” causing pauses in normal breathing, pneumonia, feeding problems, weight loss, seizures, brain damage and in some cases “Death“. Older children and adults can catch Whooping Cough and pass it on to babies and young children as carriers, continuing the spread.

Who is at risk? Anyone can get whooping cough unfortunately, people living in the same household with someone who has contracted whooping cough are especially at risk. Immunization “does” reduce the risk of infection, but immunity does fade over time and boosters should be utilized to hep prevent the spread.


  • Much like a cold Whooping Cough usually begins with a blocked or runny nose, tiredness, mild fever and a cough.
  • As symptoms progress the cough worsens and leads to severe bouts of uncontrollable coughing. These coughing bouts may be followed by vomiting, choking or taking big gasping breaths which causes a “whooping” sound. This cough can last for many weeks and can be worse at night.
  • Some Newborns may not cough at all but they can stop breathing and turn blue. Some babies may even have difficulties feeding and can choke or gag easily.
  • Older children and adults may just have a cough that lasts for many weeks. They may also not have the “whoop” sound when they cough but are still able to pass on Whooping Cough.

How is it Spread?

Whooping cough is spread when an infectious person coughs bacteria / virus into the air, that same air or particulates are inhaled by people nearby. If they are not treated early, people who are infected with whooping cough are “very” infectious in the “first three weeks” of their illness. Whooping cough also spreads easily through families, childcare centers, schools and shopping centers.


Whooping cough vaccines are “proven” to provide a good protection from infection, however immune responses from a vaccine do fade with time, which means that boosters are needed.

  • Wash your hands
  • If your ill, prevent the spread by staying at home and avoiding group gatherings where you can spread the disease by accident.


  • Vaccines “DO NOT” cause Autism. Autism is not a disease.
  • Vaccines “DO NOT” have mercury in them. Mercury is not a preservative.

Diagnosis & Treatments

Always consult a medical professional before treating illness on your own, home made remedies may not have the desired effect and may make the illness-symptoms worse”

  • If you have been in contact with someone with whooping cough early in their illness “first 3 weeks” they are infectious and you may have been exposed. Watch for symptoms and see your doctor if a new cough begins. Some babies and some pregnant women need antibiotics to prevent whooping cough infection if they have had significant contact “family member” with an infectious person.

“In Alberta Canada you can contact “811” to contact the Alberta Health Link, a Registered Nurse or Paramedic will help you with treatments and options, they may also refer to you to bring the child into a Hospital for treatment.”

In any emergency just remember to Protect Yourself!!! Call 911!!! Don’t Waste Time!!!

Learn First Aid Today, Save a Life Tomorrow, let first aid training in Edmonton be your Saving Grace

#Apnea #WhoopingCough

#FirstAidCourseEdmonton #H2SAlive #BasicLifeSupport #BLS #BLSforHCP #H2sAliveEdmonton #EnformH2S #BCLS #BCLSCourseEdmonton #ACLS #AdvancedCardiovascularLifeSupport #EMR #EmergencyMedicalResponder #ThroatInfection #ITLS

ACLS “AKA” Advanced Cardiovascular Life Support for HCP’s

One of the new programs now being offered at Saving Grace Medical Academy is the ACLS Advanced Cardiovascular Life Support course taught through the Alberta Heart & Stroke Foundation. One of the highest level’s of resuscitation available, ACLS Advanced Cardiovascular Life Support focuses on the systematic approach on high quality advanced emergency medical techniques. This program has been selected by Alberta Health Services as the standard for all “Advanced” medical professionals entering the emergency medical field.

This course offers a video-based and instructor led advanced course that expands on the Basic Life Support or “BLS” cpr skills for health care providers. Stressing the importance of continuous, high quality CPR, ACLS takes the Basic Life Support Training to the next level and brings out the importance of medical intervention during cardiopulmonary arrest along with immediate post cardiac arrest, dysrhythmia, coronary syndromes as well as stroke’s.

Alberta Heart & Stroke Foundation’s ACLS course presents:

  • Improved resuscitation science leading to a better patient outcome
  • Simulations and scenarios based on realism
  • Instructor’s with experience that can help adapt the program to local protocol’s.

Who can take this class?

  • ACLS Advanced Cardiovascular Life Support is designed for advanced health care professionals who either direct or participate in management of cardiopulmonary arrest and other cardiovascular emergencies.
  • EMS Emergency Medical Service Professionals, EMT’s “PCP” / Paramedics.
  • Emergency Medicine Professionals – Nurses / RN’s / LPN’s / Respiratory Therapists RT’s
  • Intensive Care specialists – Doctor’s
  • Critical Care Units
  • Any employment that requires an “Advanced Medical Directives” such as physicians, nurses or paramedics.

“The Heart & Stroke Foundation recommends that only those who will use the skills of ACLS within their scope of practice take the ACLS course. All students who meet the prerequisites and successfully pass the ACLS course will receive a course completion card attached to your “HSF ID number“.

Course Content:

Recent scientific evidence has pointed a direction towards better content, while educational research has been led to improve design of the ACLS Advanced Cardiovascular Life Support Provider course. The ACLS course emphasizes 3 major concepts.

  1. Crucial importance of High Quality CPR cardiopulmonary Resucitation
  2. Integration of BLS Basic Life Support with ACLS interventions
  3. Team Interaction and communication during resuscitation.

Students will practice the application of many skills in simulated cases and will practice both Team Leader and team member roles while practicing:

  • High Quality BLS Basic Life Support CPR for HCP’s
  • Airway management
  • Systematic approach to scenario management
  • Rhythm recognition “ECG”
  • Defibrillation “AED Manual & Automatic
  • IV intravenous / IO intraosseous techniques
  • Medication assist or admin
  • Cardioversion
  • Team Dynamics
  • Trans cutaneous Pacing

Course Duration:

  • New Students – 12 Hours (+-) 20 Minutes broken up into a 2 day 6 hour each program.
  • Renewing Students – 6 Hours (+-) 35 minutes – Completed in a 1 day program.

To qualify for a renewal you must complete the renewal program BEFORE your certificate expires” ACLS certification lasts for 2 years.

Here at Saving Grace Medical we hope that all this information helps you achieve a higher level of education and get the course you need when you need it. We look forward to hearing from you and helping you achieve the career you desire.

In any emergency just remember to Protect Yourself!!! Call 911!!! Don’t Waste Time!!!

Learn First Aid in Edmonton Today, Save a Life tomorrow with Saving Grace Medical Academy Ltd

#FirstAid #FirstAidCourseEdmonton #BLS #BCLS #BLSforHCP #BLSCourseEdmonton #ACLS #AdvancedCardiovascularLifeSupport #EMR #EmergencyMedicalResponder #H2SAlive #H2SAliveEdmonton

“Standard First Aid Level C CPR & AED” and Online First Aid Training at your Fingertips.

We are proud to have the opportunity to offer the new fully accredited “Online First Aid Training / Standard First Aid Level C CPR & AED“. This program is also known as “Blended Learning Standard First Aid Level C CPR & AED“. Here at Saving Grace we take great pride at keeping up to date on the newest teaching techniques that help save lives and also help save our students time.

The Canadian Red Cross has created this program to help improve the ease of access to students who are short on time, we do understand its difficult for many individuals to take “2 days” away from work.

We recommend that any student seeking an “Online First Aid Course” select a program that is fully Accredited through both your regional governing body for First Aid as well as Occupational Health & Safety. This will allow your certification to remain up to date and provide you with the most recent, and accredited form of First Aid training available.

Online First Aid Training offers a unique advantage by removing a large portion of “theory” from the in class portion and providing it on an “Online First Aid Training Video Class” that you can take part in offered through the Canadian Red Cross Campus. By removing the theory portion of the program from the instructors and placing it on an “Online First Aid Training Video Class” the student can gain the “exactsame information / training and crucial updates to keep your knowledge on track.

  • This class is broken down into 2 parts that can be completed by attending a 1 day 8 hour skill training / assessment and a 3-4 hour online training seminar through the Online First Aid Training Video Class at the Red Cross E-Learning Campus.

By having all Standard First Aid Level C CPR & AED students trained in the exact same manner and theory, we have seen an amazing improvement in course speed, knowledge and performance as students can work together on the same knowledge base without conflict of information.

Skills Gained in your Online Standard First Aid Level C Course:

  • What First Aid Is and what we can do to help!
  • EMS “Emergency Medical Services”
  • The Role of First Aid attendant
  • Liability “Laws within your local district”
  • OHS Act’s and what that means to First Aid Providers
  • Disease Transmission and Vaccinations
  • PPE “Personal Protective Equipment” Gloves / Masks
  • Check Call Care “The 3 Rules of First Aid
  • AED’s “Automatic External Defibrillators”
  • 2 Person Rescue “Benefits of Teamwork
  • H.A.IN.E.S Recovery Position
  • Choking Adult / Child / Infant
  • Med Assist “Should I give medications in First Aid?
  • CVD “Cardiovascular Disease /Heart attack & angina
  • Stroke TIA “Trans ischemic Attack”
  • Shock
  • Secondary Survey “What to do while you wait for an ambulance
  • Wound Care
  • Burns Hot vs Cold
  • Environmental Emergencies “Hypothermia vs Heat Stroke
  • Bone Muscle & Joint Injuries
  • Head / Neck & Spine Injuries
  • Poisons “Using your Material Safety Data Sheet
  • Childhood Illness
  • Keeping Children Safe
  • Substance Misuse
  • Insect Stings or Bites
  • Animal Bites
  • Diabetics
  • Seizures
  • Asthma
  • Emergency Child Birth
  • Miscarriage
  • First Aid Kits “stocking your own

To register for your easy access First Aid Course in Edmonton or Online First Aid Course known as “Blended Learning” Standard First Aid Level C CPR & AED feel free to visit our website and register. Saving Grace Medical Academy Ltd

Taught Through:

  • Canadian Red Cross

– Online First Aid Course “Blended Learning

– Online Standard First Aid Level C CPR & AED

We never know what can happen, its always good to be prepared and have the knowledge we need to help those who need it.

Learn First Aid Today, Save a Life Tomorrow with Saving Grace Medial Academy Ltd

Above all else remember to Protect Yourself!!! Call 911!!! Don’t Wast Time!!!

#FirstAid #FirstAidCourseEdmonton #BLS #BCLS #BLSforHCP #BLSCourseEdmonton #ACLS #AdvancedCardiovascularLifeSupport #EMR #EmergencyMedicalResponder #H2SAlive #H2SAliveEdmonton #OnlineFirstAidCourse #BlendedLearningOnlineFirstAidCourse #OnlineStandardFirstAidLevelC #ITLS