Category Archives: First Aid Techniques

Wound Care – Part 5 “Nosebleeds”

Wound Care – Part 5 “Nosebleeds”

Nosebleeds have had many wives tales built into them on how to prevent and or stop them. Our First Aid Course focuses on the basics on how to help with any situation including Nosebleeds, remember that many wives tales may actually make the situation worse, so follow the approved medical technique in order to prevent further injuries from this common injury.

Common Causes:

  • -Forceful Nose Blowing -High Blood Pressure -Dry weather Conditions -Trauma to the Nose -Bleeding disorders

Prevention:

  • -Wear PPE or Personal Protective Equipment when available
  • -Use a humidifier if the air indoors is dry
  • -Take safety precautions when participating in sports
  • -Encourage gentle nose blowing

What it Looks Like:

  • -Blood coming from the nose either fast or a slow drip

How to Help:

1) Check the area, once the area is safe, Check the person and ensure the persons ABC’s are present “Airway / Breathing / Circulation” REMEMBER – Wear gloves if available to avoid bodily fluids.

2) Call 911 if you suspect the injuries could be severe or if there are objects lodged in the nostril, the bleeding continues for more than 15 minutes or if the Nosebleed was caused by a medical condition or head injury.

3) Care for the Nosebleed by:

  • -Have the person sit and lean slightly forward while pinching the nostrils for 10 to 15 minutes.
  • -Once the bleeding is controlled, tell the person to avoid rubbing, blowing or picking the nose “This may cause the nose to bleed again”
  • -If the person loses consciousness, place them in the recovery position to allow the blood to drain.
  • -If the Nosebleed was caused by a severe head injury, do not pinch the nose.

“If the bleed was caused by an object in the nose and the object is easy to grasp, gently pull it out. If the person’s head comes forward as you gently pull then stop, the person needs further medical attention. Don’t feel around inside the nostril with your finger if you can not see the object, this may push it further in, seek medical attention.”

We never know what can happen, its always good to be prepared and have the knowledge we need to help those who need it.

“This material is for information purposes only and is taken from The Canadian Red Cross / Alberta Heart & Stroke Foundation & Alberta Health Services. This information should not be used in place of medical, Technical advice, instructor, and/or treatment. If you have questions, speak to your local Physician or Safety Training Facility.”

Just Remember:

Protect Yourself!!! Call 911!!! Don’t Waste Time!!!

Learn First Aid Today & Save a Life Tomorrow with Saving Grace Medical Academy Ltd.

#FirstAidCourseEdmonton #FirstAidAndBasicLifeSupport #BasicLifeSupport #BLS #BLSforHCP #BCLS #BCLSCourseEdmonton #ACLS #AdvancedCardiovascularLifeSupport #MFR #EmergencyMedicalResponder #ITLS #WoundCare #Bruises #Injuries #Cuts #Scrapes #Abrasions #PunctureWounds #ImpaledObject #NoseBleed

Wound Care – Part 4 “Impaled Objects”

Wound Care – Part 4 “Impaled Objects”

With our fourth look into Wound Care will mainly focus on Impaled Objects and what we can do to help someone experiencing this type of emergency. If the “Object” that created the injury is stuck within the wound it is called an “Impaled Object“. This can be very painful, lead to blood loss, internal damage / bleeding, infection and many other complications. With an “Embedded or Impaled Object NEVER remove the object” leave the object in place for medical professionals to remove to reduce further injury. For this post lets utilize the information we have gained in previous clips to assess, evaluate and control the hazards and injuries associated with Impaled Objects.

Common Causes:

  • -Injuries from pointed objects like nails, glass, pens or needles.
  • -Unsafe play habits with long or pointed objects

Prevention:

  • -Wear PPE or Personal Protective Equipment when available
  • -Stay away from unfamiliar or wild animals
  • -Implement safe play habits with children and adults to avoid injuries such as “running with scissors”
  • -Wear Proper footwear outdoors at work or at play
  • -Nails sticking out from boards should be removed and sweep up broken glass either inside or outside “Animals and Children can easily be exposed to sharp objects hidden in grass”

What it Looks Like:

  • -An object sticking out of the body.
  • -Bleeding, depending on the size of the object and depth of penetration.
  • -Pain
  • -Shock

How to Help:

1) Check the area, once the area is safe, Check the person and ensure the persons ABC’s are present “Airway / Breathing / CirculationREMEMBER – Wear gloves if available to avoid bodily fluids.

2) Call 911 if you suspect the injuries could be severe or if there object is large, the person is impaled “Onto” the object, is in the chest, head or neck.

3) Care for the Impaled Object by:

  • **LEAVE THE OBJECT IN** it may be acting like a plug and preventing the victim from severe blood loss.
  • -Stabilize the object by putting bulky dressings around the object to prop it in its original position “Try not to move the object as much as possible” IF THERE IS AN ENTRANCE THERE MAY BE AN EXIT, check for an exit wound and stabilize like the first.
  • -Use long bandages or tape to keep the dressings in place securing the Object & dressings.
  • -With an Impaled Object it is important that the person “ALWAYS” seeks further medical attention and avoids removing the object themselves. The object should be removed by properly trained medical personnel.

As you can see the treatments for an Impaled object and a Puncture Wound are very similar.

We never know what can happen, its always good to be prepared and have the knowledge we need to help those who need it.

“This material is for information purposes only and is taken from The Canadian Red Cross / Alberta Heart & Stroke Foundation & Alberta Health Services. This information should not be used in place of medical, Technical advice, instructor, and/or treatment. If you have questions, speak to your local Physician or Safety Training Facility.”

Just Remember:

Protect Yourself!!! Call 911!!! Don’t Waste Time!!!

Learn First Aid Today & Save a Life Tomorrow with Saving Grace Medical Academy Ltd.

#FirstAidCourseEdmonton #FirstAidAndBasicLifeSupport #BasicLifeSupport #BLS #BLSforHCP #BCLS #BCLSCourseEdmonton #ACLS #AdvancedCardiovascularLifeSupport #MFR #EmergencyMedicalResponder #ITLS #WoundCare #Bruises #Injuries #Cuts #Scrapes #Abrasions #PunctureWounds #ImpaledObject

Wound Care – Part 3 “Puncture Wounds”

Wound Care – Part 3 “Puncture Wounds”

Our third look into Wound Care will mainly focus on Puncture wounds and what we can do to help someone experiencing this type of emergency. Puncture wounds happen “all the time” and can easily be defined as “when something pointed creates a hole in the skin” or when an embedded object within the skin has been removed. This can be very painful, lead to blood loss, internal damage, infection and many other complications. With an “Embedded or Impaled Object NEVER remove the object” leave the object in place for medical professionals to remove to reduce further injury. For this post lets utilize the information we have gained in previous clips to assess, evaluate and control the hazards and injuries associated with Puncture Wounds.

Common Causes:

  • -Injuries from pointed objects like nails, glass, pens or needles.
  • -Animal Bites “Fangs or pointed teeth may cause puncture wounds”
  • -Unsafe play habits with long or pointed objects

Prevention:

  • -Wear PPE or Personal Protective Equipment when available
  • -Stay away from unfamiliar or wild animals
  • -Implement safe play habits with children and adults to avoid injuries such as “running with scissors
  • -Wear Proper footwear outdoors at work or at play
  • -Nails sticking out from boards should be removed and sweep up broken glass either inside or outside “Animals and Children can easily be exposed to sharp objects hidden in grass”

What it Looks Like:

  • -A hole in the skin where the object penetrated or went through.
  • -Possible Bruising around a wound with a depressed pointed center.
  • -Bleeding, depending on the size of the object and depth of penetration.

How to Help:

1) Check the area, once the area is safe, Check the person and ensure the persons ABC’s are present “Airway / Breathing / CirculationREMEMBERWear gloves if available to avoid bodily fluids.

2) Call 911 if you suspect the injuries could be severe or if there is “Animal Attack”.

3) Care for the Puncture Wound by:

  • -If the wound is bleeding place “Direct Pressure on the wound with “dressings” until the bleeding stops”
  • -After the bleeding stops and there is no risk of further opening the wound “rinse with cool clean water for roughly 5 minutes” add soap if the person is comfortable to do so *Avoid fragrant soaps or soaps with grit*
  • -Antibiotic ointments or creams may be applied once the bleeding has stopped. Follow the directions recommended by a pharmacists and check the “5 Rights of Medications**Always ask the person if they have allergies or sensitivity to antibiotics such as penicillin, if so “Do NOT apply the ointment**
  • -Secure the wound with dressings and a bandage, monitor for signs of infection by changing the bandages / dressings regularly to avoid complications.

We never know what can happen, its always good to be prepared and have the knowledge we need to help those who need it.

“This material is for information purposes only and is taken from The Canadian Red Cross / Alberta Heart & Stroke Foundation & Alberta Health Services. This information should not be used in place of medical, Technical advice, instructor, and/or treatment. If you have questions, speak to your local Physician or Safety Training Facility.”

Just Remember:

Protect Yourself!!! Call 911!!! Don’t Waste Time!!!

Learn First Aid Today & Save a Life Tomorrow with Saving Grace Medical Academy Ltd.

#FirstAidCourseEdmonton #FirstAidAndBasicLifeSupport #BasicLifeSupport #BLS #BLSforHCP #BCLS #BCLSCourseEdmonton #ACLS #AdvancedCardiovascularLifeSupport #MFR #EmergencyMedicalResponder #ITLS #WoundCare #Bruises #Injuries #Cuts #Scrapes #Abrasions #PunctureWounds

Wound Care – Part 2 “Cuts & Scrapes”

Wound Care – Part 2 “Cuts & Scrapes”

For our second part of Wound Care lets focus on one of the most common injuries we sustain on a daily basis, whether it be from a paper cut, road rash or even snipping with a bread knife wounds happen almost every day. Lets look at how we can help someone with a cut “a wound where the skin has been split open or torn away with either jagged or smooth edges“, or a scrape “a wound where the skin has been rubbed or scraped away”.

Common Causes:

  • -Dull knives or improper safety technique during cutting
  • -Falling or impacting on an abrasive surface
  • -Contact with dull, abrasive or sharp object with force enough to rub or scrape the skin away.

What to Look for:

  • -Skin pealed away
  • -Bleeding
  • -Pain & Tenderness
  • -Raised or swollen area with potentially broken skin

How to Help:

1) Check the area, once the area is safe, Check the person and ensure the persons ABC’s are present “Airway / Breathing / Circulation

2) Call 911 if you suspect the injuries could be severe.

3) Care for the scrape or cut by:

  • -*REMEMBER* Put your gloves on if there is bodily fluids.
  • -Wash the wound with soap & clean cool water.
  • -If possible rinse the wound with cool clean running water for up to five minutes to help reduce infection & bleeding. Once the wound is clean and if bleeding persists apply “Direct Pressure” on the wound until the bleeding stops, if the blood soaks through the dressing -ADD more dressings on top- Do not remove blood soaked bandages as they are already assisting in clotting the wound. If bleeding persists seek further medical attention.
  • -Antibiotic ointments or creams may be applied once the bleeding has stopped. Follow the directions recommended by a pharmacists and check the “5 Rights of Medications” **Always ask the person if they have allergies or sensitivity to antibiotics such as penicillin, if so “Do NOT apply the ointment**
  • -Cover the wound with a non-stick sterile dressing if available or bandage.
  • -Continue to monitor for signs of infection

If there is substantial amount of dirt or contaminant’s within the wound, the injured person should seek further medical attention to avoid the risk of infection.

Stitches:

Any wound that needs “Stitches” should be assessed and stitched by a trained medical professional as soon as possible “Golden Hour Rule” wounds should be assessed and stitched within an hour if possible to avoid complications, stitches help speed healing, reduce chance of infection and leave a less noticeable scar. A wound may need to be stitched if:

  • -The wound is more than 2 1/2 cm or 1 inch long
  • -Edges of the wound do not fall together
  • -The wound is near a joint or on the hands or feet
  • -The wound is on the face

We never know what can happen, its always good to be prepared and have the knowledge we need to help those who need it.

“This material is for information purposes only and is taken from The Canadian Red Cross / Alberta Heart & Stroke Foundation & Alberta Health Services. This information should not be used in place of medical, Technical advice, instructor, and/or treatment. If you have questions, speak to your local Physician or Safety Training Facility.”

Just Remember:

Protect Yourself!!! Call 911!!! Don’t Waste Time!!!

Learn First Aid Today & Save a Life Tomorrow with Saving Grace Medical Academy Ltd.

#FirstAidCourseEdmonton #FirstAidAndBasicLifeSupport #BasicLifeSupport #BLS #BLSforHCP #BCLS #BCLSCourseEdmonton #ACLS #AdvancedCardiovascularLifeSupport #MFR #EmergencyMedicalResponder #ITLS #WoundCare #Bruises #Injuries #Cuts #Scrapes #Abrasions

Eczema – Treatments and Facts

Eczema

What is a Eczema? Eczema, also known as “Atopic Dermatitis” is an extremely common chronic inflammatory condition of the skin that affects people of all ages and walks of life. Eczema may be termed as a “Disease” however you can “Not” catch it, or give it to someone else and there is no risk of passing it on. Eczema “as it is not fully understood” has been found with new research to be linked to the immune system and more closely resembles an “Allergy” than anything else, this of course leads to mild to severe inflammation and irritation of the skin as the immune system “over reacts” to stimulus.

There are many types of eczema, with the most common one being “atopic dermatitis”. Atopy refers to a hereditary tendency towards eczema, asthma, and allergic rhinitis “hay fever”, people with eczema may also suffer with one of the other conditions as well, these conditions are linked by an increased activity of the allergy component of the immune system. Atopic Dermatitis is most likely caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Genetic causes include differences in the proteins that form the skin barrier. When this barrier is broken down, the skin loses moisture more easily, becoming more dry, easily irritated, and hypersensitive. The skin is also more prone to infection “with bacteria, viruses, or fungi”.

Types of Eczema:

  • Allergic contact eczema – The skin gets red, itchy, and weepy because it touches something that the immune system knows is foreign, like poison ivy.
  • Contact eczema – The skin has redness, itching, and burning in one spot because it has touched something allergy-causing, like an acid, cleaner, or other chemical.
  • Dyshidrotic Eczema – the skin on the palms of the hands and soles of the feet is irritated and has clear, deep blisters that itch and burn.
  • Neurodermatitis – Scaly patches on the head, lower legs, wrists, or forearms are caused by localized itch “such as an insect bite”
  • Seborrheic Eczema – This skin has yellowish, oily, scaly patches on the scalp, face, and sometimes other parts of the body.
  • Stasis Dermatitis – The skin is irritated on the lower legs, most often from a blood flow problem.

Things to know about Eczema:

  • Typically begins in early childhood
  • Can occur in infants as early as a few weeks old
  • Can continue through adolescence and into adulthood
  • May occur for the first time well into adulthood
  • May be outgrown, however-skin may continue to be dry, irritable, and sensitive

What does Eczema look like?

Atopic eczema can affect any part of the skin, including the face, but the areas that are most commonly affected are the joints at the elbows and knees, hands, the groin, buttocks, back as well as the wrists and neck. Other common appearances of atopic eczema include coin-sized areas of inflammation on the limbs, back, and numerous small bumps that coincide with hair follicles.

The affected skin is usually red and dry, and scratch marks “accompanied by bleeding” are common. When the eczema is very active, it may become moist and weepy “during a flare-up” and small water blisters may develop especially on the hands and feet. In areas that are repeatedly scratched, the skin may thicken, and this may cause the skin to itch more. Sometimes affected areas of the skin may become darker or lighter in colour.

Scratching the affected area can cause:

  • Redness
  • Swelling
  • Cracking
  • Weeping “clear fluids”
  • Crusting
  • Thick Skin
  • Scaling

Things that make Eczema worse:

Many factors in a person’s environment can make eczema worse, these include heat, dust, wool, pets and irritants such as soap and detergents. Being unwell, for example or having a common cold can make eczema flare up, this also includes infections with bacteria or viruses. Bacterial infections “usually with a bug called staphylococcus” makes the affected skin yellow, crusty and inflamed “this may need specific medical treatment”. An infection with the cold sore virus “herpes simplex” can cause a sudden painful widespread “on rare occasions dangerous” flare of eczema. “Consult a physician if you believe these factors apply to your recent flair up”.

How is Eczema Treated?

Treatment works best when the patient, family members, and the doctors work together. Treatment plans are based on:

  1. Age
  2. Symptoms and severity
  3. General Health of the patient

Carefully follow the treatment plans that have been laid out to minimize flair ups. Try to notice what is or isn’t helpful as each person is different and how their skin is developed. Symptoms usually improve with the right skin care and lifestyle changes. Eczema treatment goals are to “heal the skin” and “prevent flair ups”. You and your family members should watch for changes in the skin to find out what treatments help the most.

Your doctor will help you:

  1. Develop a good skin care routine
  2. Avoid things that lead to flares
  3. Treat symptoms when they occur

Medications for Eczema “Atopic Dermatitis” include:

  • Skin creams or ointments that control swelling and lower allergic reactions
  • Corticosteroids
  • Antibiotics to treat infections caused by bacteria
  • Antihistamines
  • Immune system suppressant medications

Gentle skin care to prevent dryness includes:

Bathe daily or every-other-day in order to wash off dirt and other potential irritants. Water should be warm “not hot” and bath time should be limited to 5-10 minutes. Pat dry the skin and immediately apply moisturizer while the skin is still slightly damp. The moisturizer provides a seal to hold the water in the skin.

Finding a cream or ointment that the child likes or can tolerate is important, as resistance from the child may make the daily regimen difficult to keep up. The thicker the moisturizer, the better the barrier it generally provides. Ointments are more effective than creams, and creams more so than lotions. Creams are a reasonable options during the summer when thick greasy ointments are uncomfortable.

  • Light Therapy “Exposure to UV or specific spectrum lights”
  • Skin care that helps heal the skin and keep it healthy
  • Protection from Allergens

Do I have a disease if I have Eczema?

Answer – “No

Eczema is a random event that does have factors too its appearance. Typically Eczema does not have an associated disease or cause, it is a random occurrence that anyone could have.

Can Eczema be cured?

Answer – “No

Eczema cannot be cured, but there are many ways of controlling it and it can go into remission for extended periods of time. Most children with eczema improve as they get older “60% clear by their teens”. However, many continue to have dry skin and need to continue to avoid irritants such as soaps, bubble baths, detergents or harsh chemicals.

Information for this article was taken from – Australian Society of Clinical Immunology and Allergy – Eczema Society of Canada – British Association of Dermatologists – The Society of Paediatric dermatology Indianapolis – National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases.

We never know what can happen, its always good to be prepared and have the knowledge we need to help those who need it.

“This material is for information purposes only and is taken from The Canadian Red Cross / Alberta Heart & Stroke Foundation & Alberta Health Services. This information should not be used in place of medical, Technical advice, instructor, and/or treatment. If you have questions, speak to your local Physician or Safety Training Facility.”

Just Remember:

Protect Yourself!!! Call 911!!! Don’t Waste Time!!!

Learn First Aid Today & Save a Life Tomorrow with Saving Grace Medical Academy Ltd.

#FirstAidCourseEdmonton #FirstAidAndBasicLifeSupport #BasicLifeSupport #BLS #BLSforHCP #BCLS #BCLSCourseEdmonton #ACLS #AdvancedCardiovascularLifeSupport #MFR #EmergencyMedicalResponder #ITLS

CPR-Expanded – Things to keep in mind during CPR.

Things to Keep in Mind During CPR

In our previous posts “CPR & how to perform Parts 1 too 3” we described how to perform CPR “Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation” on all age groups, but what if the victim was “Pregnant? You had a broken arm? they begin to Vomit? Have a broken Jaw? or have a Stoma? We can’t prepare you for every outcome that you might encounter so we’ll do our best to help you with the big ones that we run into. Lets look at them one by one and give you options to help improve our chances of survival.

Vomiting:

Vomiting can occur from just about anything, but most commonly during CPR its a build up of too much Air in the stomach, when the unconscious person vomits there is a risk that the vomit may enter the lungs, this is called “Aspiration”. To avoid Aspiration give breaths only until the chest starts to rise, once the chest rises stop.

What to Do:

1) Turn the persons head & body together as one “H.A.IN.E.S Technique” onto the persons side.”Let the vomit drain out”

2) Quickly wipe the persons mouth clean

3) Roll the person onto their back once again and continue CPR

Mouth to Nose / Stoma Breathing:

There are many reasons why you may not be able to seal your mouth well over the other persons mouth to give rescue breaths. Injured mouth or jaw, mouth shut too tight, your mouth is to small, or blood coming from their mouth, in any case there is a simple step to remedy the situation.

What to Do:

1) Block the mouth to stop air from escaping & seal your mouth around the persons nose, give a breath to make the chest rise.

2) If the victim has a “Stoma” it is the same technique but this time block “Both the Nose & Mouth” and give a breath through the Stoma

One Handed Compression’s

Some rescuers might be injured themselves “Broken arm / Wrist” or may have other medical conditions that prevent them from doing a proper two handed compression technique “Arthritis, lack of upper body strength” for these reasons you can still do CPR by using One hand.

What to Do:

1) Place the heel of one hand in the middle of the persons chest

2) Grasp the wrist of the hand on the chest or place your free hand behind your back

3) Begin compression’s pushing Hard & Fast

4) Keep your compression arm as strait as possible to keep position.

CPR for a Pregnant Woman

CPR for a pregnant woman is identical to any form of CPR with placing one or two hands in the center of the chest pushing hard & fast giving 30 compression’s & 2 breaths. If you have a soft object that you can place under the woman’s “Right Hip” Raise the hip about 3-4 inches or 7-10 cm’s, “Do Not interrupt CPR to find an object” just continue CPR as you normally would.

We never know what can happen, its always good to be prepared and have the knowledge we need to help those who need it.

“This material is for information purposes only and is taken from The Canadian Red Cross / Alberta Heart & Stroke Foundation & Alberta Health Services. This information should not be used in place of medical, Technical advice, instructor, and/or treatment. If you have questions, speak to your local Physician or Safety Training Facility.”

Just Remember:

Protect Yourself!!! Call 911!!! Don’t Waste Time!!!

Learn First Aid Today & Save a Life Tomorrow with Saving Grace Medical Academy Ltd.

#FirstAidCourseEdmonton #FirstAidAndBasicLifeSupport #BasicLifeSupport #BLS #BLSforHCP #BCLS #BCLSCourseEdmonton #ACLS #AdvancedCardiovascularLifeSupport #MFR #EmergencyMedicalResponder #ITLS #CPR #HowToDoCPR #CPRTutorial #WhatToKnowAboutCPR #AdultCPR #ChildCPR #HowToUseAnAED #AED #AutomaticExternalDefibrilator

CPR “Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation “Infant / Baby”​ What you need to know:

CPR “Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation “Infant / Baby”

How to Perform CPR “Part 3 of 3”

“CPR on an Infant is Perfectly Safe! You will NOT hurt your infant, Not doing CPR may lead to the death of the Infant”

In our last post we focused on the basic information you would need to know about CPR and how its performed. For this Post we will focus giving you the “Step by Step CPR Guide”. This guideline is for the “General Public” for the Health Care Provider we will have a post later on dedicated to the new standards set by ILCOR, The Heart & Stroke Foundation, and the Basic Life Support CPR-C for HCP’s Health Care Providers guidelines.

Common Questions

  • Can CPR hurt my baby? – Answer = NO, CPR is perfectly safe, you will not hurt your child, Not doing CPR may lead to the death of the infant however.
  • Can I break ribs by doing CPR? – Answer = In an Infant it is “Rare” that you would break ribs, remember they are still developing and their bones are still somewhat pliable, be sure to push Hard and Fast to a depth of 1/3rd the depth of the chest and don’t stop until help arrives!
  • How much air should I give them? – Answer = While giving a breath by either “Mouth to Mouth or by using a pocket mask” remember to Head tilt Chin lift to a neutral position of the head that makes the infant look like they are “sniffing“, seal up your lips over both the nose and mouth and give a breath “just enough” to see a baby size chest rise. Stop when you feel resistance as the volume needed for an infants lungs is about the volume within your own mouth, also if you feel resistance check the mouth to see if there are obstructions, you may discover “why” your infant has stopped breathing, if you can see the object “Carefully remove itNEVER perform a blind finger sweep, you may push the object deeper and make the situation worse.

Emergency Procedures

In any Emergency remember to:

  1. 1) Protect yourself Make sure its safe before helping
  2. 2) Call 911Get your Paramedic Partners going
  3. 3) Don’t Waste TimeEach second without oxygen can cause brain damage, don’t waste it wondering what to do, just help

If the Baby / Infant is “Not breathing” and has gone unconscious for any reason “START CPR, Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation”

CPR “Infant / Baby”

  1. 1) Start CPR by:
  • – Place one hand on the forehead to maintain an open airway with a slight head tilt chin lift “like the baby is sniffing”
  • -Place 2 fingers on the middle of the chest just below the nipples.
  • – Push Hard / Push Fast “DO 30 Compression’s in a row at a rough depth of 4cm’s or 1 1/2 inch allowing the chest to recoil or raise up to the top after each compression.

2) Give two Breaths by:

  • – If you have a pocket mask “Use it now” or:
  • – Open the airway by using the “Head-tilt / Chin lift technique
  • – Seal your lips tightly over the baby’s “Mouth & Nose
  • – Give two “baby size” breaths, taking about 1 second per breath with just enough volume to make the chest rise up.

3) If your breaths go in:

  • – Repeat the cycle of 30 chest compression’s and 2 breaths
  • If your breaths do NOT go in: Repeat the cycle of 30 chest compression’s and before giving the next 2 breaths look into the mouth for obstructions. “Choking in infants is very common” remove the object if you see it then continue with 30 compression’s & 2 Breaths.

4) Continue CPR until:

  • – The scene is no longer safe to be in
  • – More advanced care arrives.
  • – An A.E.D arrives and has told you to stop.
  • – You have become physically unable to continue.
  • – The victim starts to breath normally on their own.

We never know what can happen, its always good to be prepared and have the knowledge we need to help those who need it.

“This material is for information purposes only and is taken from The Canadian Red Cross / Alberta Heart & Stroke Foundation & Alberta Health Services. This information should not be used in place of medical, Technical advice, instructor, and/or treatment. If you have questions, speak to your local Physician or Safety Training Facility.”

Just Remember:

Protect Yourself!!! Call 911!!! Don’t Waste Time!!!

Learn First Aid Today & Save a Life Tomorrow with Saving Grace Medical Academy Ltd.

#FirstAidCourseEdmonton #FirstAidAndBasicLifeSupport #BasicLifeSupport #BLS #BLSforHCP #BCLS #BCLSCourseEdmonton #ACLS #AdvancedCardiovascularLifeSupport #MFR #EmergencyMedicalResponder #ITLS #CPR #HowToDoCPR #CPRTutorial #WhatToKnowAboutCPR #AdultCPR #ChildCPR #InfantCPR

Migraine’s – Information for your Headache

Migraine’s

“Information for your Headache”

What is a Migraine?

Headaches are a common health problem. A migraine is a severe headache that usually begins on one side of the head “Often behind the eye” and spreads to the whole head. Migraine’s are more than “just a headache”. It is a complex neurological condition, which can affect the whole body and can result in many symptoms, sometimes without a headache at all. For most people the main feature of a migraine is a painful headache. However, there are other associated symptoms that can prevent an individual from continuing with daily life, some of these symptoms include Pulsing or throbbing Pain “Mild too Severe, Sensitivity to light or sound, Nausea, Vomiting and more.

What causes a Migraine?

In recent years the understanding of migraines within the medical world has greatly improved, involving many aspects of physiology including the central nervous system, neurotransmitters and other chemicals within the brain. The actual “cause” of a migraine is still unclear, some studies suggest that a migraine is caused by swelling of the blood vessels in the scalp and tissue around the brain, causing more blood to pump through the brain changing “inter cranial pressure” causing pain, however another current study has linked people with a DNA variant on chromosome 8 between two genes – PGCP & MTDH/AEG-1 and have been found to have a significantly greater risk of developing migraines. It appears that the DNA variant regulates the levels of glutamate – a chemical, known as a neurotransmitter, that transports messages between nerve cells in the brain; an accumulation of this chemical in the brain can cause migraines. Other researchers have found that Spontaneous over activity and abnormal amplification in pain and other, predominantly sensory, pathways in the brainstem, lead to migraines. Yet another research group has found that a feedback loop through innervation of cranial arteries in the trigeminovascular system may have a relative deficiency of 5-hydroxytriptamine. Research has lead to relevance of Calcium Channel abnormalities and peptides such as calcitonin gene related peptide abnormalities may be the true cause of migraines.

What does all this mean? “There is hope” and research continues.

Types of Migraines:

There are two main types of Migraines, Migraine’s “With” Aura and Migraine’s “Without” Aura.

Migraine “Without Aura”

Formerly called a “common migraine” or a migraine without aura or visual distortions can last between a few hours and up to a few days “commonly 4 to 72 hours“ even up to a year, accompanied by gastrointestinal symptoms or heightened special senses “sensitivity to light / sound / off putting tastes”. Pain can be mild to severe or generalized “not restricted to one side of the head”. The largest thing that separates a Migraine from a Tension Type Headache is that the victim is unable to keep focus and is distracted due to the pain making it difficult in maintaining exercise, hard work, or excessive movement.

Symptoms include:

  • Pain on one side of the head
  • Pain that radiates from neck “into one side of the head”
  • Pain with a pulsating or throbbing quality
  • Moderate to intense pain affecting daily activity
  • Nausea or Vomiting
  • Sensitivity to light or sound
  • Increased pain with exertion or movement
  • Pins and needles in the limbs
  • Inability to concentrate
  • Confusion
  • Difficulty in speaking
  • Loss of consciousness “very rare cases

Migraine “With Aura”

Aura Migraines are classified as such due to the visual disturbance that sufferers experience prior to the onset of migraine symptoms “typically aura may begin 15 to 45 minutes before the full migraine effects take hold“. Aura migraines are characterized by a visual distortion with kaleidoscopic effects, typically starting out small like a blinking light then growing and looking like fortifications off the peripheral vision “looks like a fortified kaleidoscopic town from above”. These distortions are like jagged figures, lines arranged at right angles to one another beginning from a para-central area which gradually spread outwards leaving visual loss behind. There are often white, gray or colours similar to a kaleidoscope in a semicircle or “C” shape surrounding the area of visual loss. There may also be flickering lights, spots, or lines, or may be accompanied by speech disturbances. These symptoms are usually “fully reversible” and will leave once the full onset of pain or migraine symptoms begin.

“Aura Migraine Symptoms are the same as above”

Early Warning Signs

Noticing early warning signs and taking immediate action can potentially prevent or reduce the severity of the migraine. Migraines can often be proceeded by symptoms “called prodrome symptoms” that can serve as early warning signs. These symptoms typically occur 6-24 hours prior to headache and may include:

  • Mood changes including depression, euphoria, increased irritability
  • Increased thirst
  • Fluid retention
  • Food cravings or loss of appetite
  • Sensitivity to light and sound
  • Fatigue
  • Restlessness “excessive energy spike
  • Difficulty using or understanding words “I just cant remember the word”
  • Talkativeness “hyperactivity
  • Neck stiffness
  • Light headedness “Spaced out”
  • Diarrhea

Triggers

Many migraine sufferers know the “fear” associated with even the word “Migraine”, this has led many to seek out the root cause, or “Triggers” that may influence the frequency and severity of migraines. Triggers may not be the same for all sufferers, you would need to consult your physician or create a “migraine diary” which may help you track the triggers which make your own Migraines appear.

Triggers Include:

  • Stress or the relief of stress including strong emotional response
  • Hormonal changes – periods, hormone pills and menopause
  • Lack of Food or infrequent meals
  • Mild Allergic Response “histamine release” – Nuts / peanut butter, smoke, perfume or chemical odours, aspartame artificial sweetener, sardines, anchovies, pickled herring, MSG, freshly baked yeast products, chocolate, sour cream or yogurt, caffeine, alcohol – Red wine, beer, cheese, oranges, tomatoes: and more. This is attributed to the inflammation of cells within the sinuses and soft tissue within the head, stomach and intestinal tract changing cranial pressure. “A mild over the counter antihistamine has been shown to improve symptoms.
  • Light “glare, flickering lights, florescence, bright light”
  • Eye Strain
  • Posture
  • Exercise
  • Weather Changes

TREATMENT

Migraines vary between people and so does the treatment, there are many new treatments that can be used for a migraine, which ones work for you would depend on your own body and particular migraine. If a migraine is in the early stages, simple medications such as NSAIDs “non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs” like Aspirin, Tylenol, Advil, and anti-nausea medications may be enough to provide relief.

  • Mild Migraine Symptoms- Many migraine sufferers know that if they feel the symptoms begin they have a regiment of techniques, food, positions and postures they can attempt to stop the symptoms from progressing into a full blown migraine. “Non proven methods” Many people have reported relief by using CBD “Canabidiol Oil derived from Cannabis, Acupuncture, Biofeedback Therapy or coping skill workshops, Peppermint Oil along the scalp line, eating almonds, Daith Piercing, yoga, sleep, green tea, cranberry juice and more”. Please consult your physician before attempting these to confirm that you are eligible or in physical condition to attempt them.

Home Care

Simple measures may help you deal with a migraine at home: lie in a quiet, cool, dark room. Place a cold cloth on your forehead or neck. Do not drink coffee, tea, or orange juice. Avoid moving around too much, try to relax through meditation or listening to soft music. Do not read or watch television. Do not drive. Some people find relief by “sleeping off” an attack. Take painkillers as directed by your doctor.

  • Moderate Migraine Symptoms– A moderate level migraine is normally managed with NSAID “non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs” like Aspirin, Tylenol, Advil, and anti-nausea medications. “Please consult your physician or pharmacists to confirm the dosage that is right for your age, size and NSAID type.” Combine Home care methods with NSAID use to achieve the best results.
  • Severe Migraine Symptoms– If the pain is severe, stronger medications “usually intravenous into the vein through a drip” and hospital treatment may be necessary. Consult your physician and attend a medical facility, have a friend or family member bring you to a hospital to receive care. If your headache is severe, is not like the usual pattern, does not respond to the usual pain relief medication, or is associated with arm or leg weakness, speech difficulty, fever, drowsiness or confusion, you should seek URGENT medical care.

Post Migraine “Postdrome”

For most people the pain stops and they feel well again, or you may be left with a “hangover” like state that lasts several hours or days. This can leave you weak, tired or with mild headache. Commons symptoms of “Post Migraine” are nausea, blurred vision, feeling spaced out or hard to concentrate, headache that can worsen with movement. Many sufferers of “Post Migraine” symptoms have reported that “Home Care” techniques like Electrolytes, NSAIDs, Rest, Yoga, avoiding screen time from TV or phone and more help to alleviate the symptoms. “Refer to Home Care section

Prevention of Migraines:

Non-Pharmacological Strategies

Non-pharmacological options include strategies we can employ for ourselves as well as treatments used by trained practitioners. Your physician may be able to provide referrals to local resources and other health care professions that have been shown to reduce migraine frequency, severity and symptoms.

Lifestyle Changes

Understanding how Lifestyle impacts the severity and frequency of migraine attacks can be a large part of successful migraine prevention. The key is to develop consistent patters for all days of the week. Lifestyle changes should be undertaken gradually and over time.

  • Sleep: Maintain consistent sleep patterns, including on weekends and holidays. Learn how much sleep you need and try not to get too much or too little. Not getting enough sleep during the week and trying to et extra sleep on the weekend may trigger and attack.
  • Exercise: a routine of 20-40 minutes of aerobic exercise 3 or more times per week can relieve stress and balance internal physiology.
  • Eating: Eat regular meals, and do not skip meals. Eat a good, healthy breakfast.
  • Reduce stress
  • Improve posture: pay special attention to how you hold your neck and shoulders. For example, when working on a computer, adjust your seat and table so that you don’t have to bend your neck for long periods. This will apply as well while using cellular devices, you’ll want to adjust your posture to an upright position and raise your arm to look at your phone rather than tilting your neck downwards.

Behavioural Treatments

Examples of behavioural treatments include:

  • Biofeedback therapy: A technique where people elarn to sense changes in the body’s activity and to use relaxation and other methods to control the body’s responses.
  • Coping skills: Headache sufferers generally find cognitive restructuring “identifying negative self-talk and changing the disparaging remarks to positive ones”, assertiveness training, and goal identification helpful.
  • The likelihood of behavioural techniques working as preventative treatment for migraines depends upon appropriate training and discipline for the person using the technique. This is more to reduce stress and help maintain a calm to help prevent an attack.

Complementary Treatments:

  • Acupuncture/Acupressure: Using fine metal needles or mechanical pressure, the acupuncturist manipulates energy called chi by way of nerve point stimulation to help balance the flow of energy and nerve conduction. This will help return your body to a balanced state. Individuals can also practice Tai Chi or Qi Gong to balance Chi in a more traditional way.
  • Manipulative procedures / chiropractors: A skilled practitioner manipulates joints or muscles in an effort to reduce abnormal peripheral input to the Central Nervous System and restore kinaesthetic balance. Examples include: chiropractic treatment, Physiotherapy and craniofacial therapy.
  • Massage Therapy: A registered Massage Therapist massages and relaxes the body, releasing stress build-up in soft / deep muscles tissue to restore movement and flexation in a nominal impact method.
  • Intramuscular Stimulation: IMS is a similar technique to acupuncture and uses fine needle to treat tight muscle bands that are implicated in many chronic and painful conditions such as neck and back pain as well as many other soft tissue injures. However IMS differs from acupuncture in its application because needle insertion is indicated by the physical signs, as apposed to the non-scientific meridians of Chinese Acupuncture. This invasive and Moderate too High intensity painful procedure is designed to temporarily disable nerve conduction in specific nerve sites that are attributed to causing the painful stimulus. Please consult a physician to see if this medical procedure is right for you.
  • Botox Injections: Botox is a drug prepared from the bacterial toxin Botulin, used to treat certain muscular conditions and cosmetically to remove wrinkles by temporarily paralyzing muscles. For use against Migraines you would receive several shots of Botox around your head and neck once every 12 weeks to dull or prevent migraine headaches. This procedure “must” be administered by a registered physician, to see if this is right for your please consult your personal doctor.

Other Treatments

  • Vitamins, Minerals and Herbs: The Primary Care Network reports the following may help with migraines: “Please consult your Doctor before attempting any of these”
  • Riboflavin: 400 Mg per day
  • Feverfew: 1 capsule 3-4 times per day for one month. If effective, the dosage may slowly be decreased if desired. Avoid during pregnancy and when taking NSAIDs such as ibuprofen and Aleve “naproxen”
  • Magnesium: 400-600 mg per day
  • Vitamin B complex: 1 Tablet per day

These are not medically proven techniques and should be consulted with your personal Doctor before attempting

For more information please consult your local Health Care Professional facility and talk to your Physician about what’s right for you. Combining many treatments and approaches may help you achieve relief from your Migraine symptoms. A Migraine Disability Assessment Test may be performed to assess the severity of your migraine and what options best fit you. A Migraine Diary or “Headache Diary” should be used to help track potential triggers, this may be valuable information in finding ways to avoid a debilitating migraine.

We never know what can happen, its always good to be prepared and have the knowledge we need to help those who need it.

“This material is for information purposes only and is taken from The Canadian Red Cross / Alberta Heart & Stroke Foundation & Alberta Health Services. This information should not be used in place of medical, Technical advice, instructor, and/or treatment. If you have questions, speak to your local Physician or Safety Training Facility.”

Just Remember:

Protect Yourself!!! Call 911!!! Don’t Waste Time!!!

Learn First Aid Today & Save a Life Tomorrow with Saving Grace Medical Academy Ltd.

#FirstAidCourseEdmonton #FirstAidAndBasicLifeSupport #BasicLifeSupport #BLS #BLSforHCP #BCLS #BCLSCourseEdmonton #ACLS #AdvancedCardiovascularLifeSupport #MFR #EmergencyMedicalResponder #ITLS #CPR #Migraine #MigraineTriggers #MigraineTreatments #MigraineSymptoms

Info Taken From:

University of California “Berkeley”, National Headache Foundation Chicago IL, Practical Neurology April 2014 Baylor College of Medicine Houston TX, Education Fact Sheets Victoria Melbourne, J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2002, Migraine Action Center United Kingdom.

CPR “Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation “Part 2” Adult & Child

CPR “Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation” Adult & Child

How to Perform CPR “Part 2 of 3”

In our last post we focused on the basic information you would need to know about CPR and how its performed. For this Post we will focus giving you the “Step by Step CPR Guide”. This guideline is for the “General Public” for the Health Care Provider we will have a post later on dedicated to the new standards set by ILCOR, The Heart & Stroke Foundation, and the Basic Life Support CPR-C for HCP’s Health Care Providers guidelines.

In any Emergency remember to:

1) Protect yourself “Make sure its safe before helping”

2) Call 911 “Get your Paramedic Partners going”

3) Don’t Waste Time “Each second without oxygen can cause brain damage, don’t waste it wondering what to do, just help”

If the person is “Not breathing” and has gone unconscious for any reason “START CPR, Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation”

CPR “Adult & Child”

1) Start CPR by:

– Place the hell of one hand on the middle of the person’s chest, place the other hand on top “Palm above Palm in the Center of the Chest”

– Push Hard / Push Fast “DO 30 Compression’s in a row” Allowing the chest to recoil or raise up to the top after each compression.

2) Give two Breaths by:

– If you have a pocket mask “Use it now” or:

– Open the airway by using the “Head-tilt / Chin lift technique

– Pinch the person’s nostrils closed.

– Take a normal breath

– Cover the person’s mouth with your mouth

– Give two breaths, taking about 1 second per breath with just enough volume to make the chest rise up.

3) If your breaths go in:

– Repeat the cycle of 30 chest compression’s and 2 breaths

– If your breaths do NOT go in: Repeat the cycle of 30 chest compression’s and 2 breaths.

4) Continue CPR until:

– The scene is no longer safe to be in

– More advanced care arrives.

– An A.E.D arrives and has told you to stop.

– You have become physically unable to continue.

– The victim starts to breath normally on their own.

We never know what can happen, its always good to be prepared and have the knowledge we need to help those who need it.

“This material is for information purposes only and is taken from The Canadian Red Cross / Alberta Heart & Stroke Foundation & Alberta Health Services. This information should not be used in place of medical, Technical advice, instructor, and/or treatment. If you have questions, speak to your local Physician or Safety Training Facility.”

Just Remember:

Protect Yourself!!! Call 911!!! Don’t Waste Time!!!

Learn First Aid Today & Save a Life Tomorrow with Saving Grace Medical Academy Ltd.

#FirstAidCourseEdmonton #FirstAidAndBasicLifeSupport #BasicLifeSupport #BLS #BLSforHCP #BCLS #BCLSCourseEdmonton #ACLS #AdvancedCardiovascularLifeSupport #MFR #EmergencyMedicalResponder #ITLS #CPR #HowToDoCPR #CPRTutorial #WhatToKnowAboutCPR #AdultCPR #ChildCPR

CPR “Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation” Adult & Child:

CPR “Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation” Adult & Child

What to know about CPR “Part 1 of 3”

Over the past 4 years our school has provided training in the basics of CPR or Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation techniques, we have learned that once you get the hang of it, its a skill that can stick with you for a lifetime giving you the ability to save a loved one when tragedy strikes. Many people are also unaware of the fact that some day, somewhere, “Someone is going to do CPR ON YOU“!! Once we tell our students this many questions start to pop up like “What are my chances of surviving CPR without brain damage? What if I have a DNR “Do Not Resuscitate“, Can I kill someone by doing CPR? Will I hurt them? Can I get sued by doing CPR incorrectly? Is it performed differently for different age groups?

Lets go through those questions one by one before we get the basics of CPR put into your mind, just remember that “Anyone Can do it” The first question of “What are my chances of surviving CPR?” is always the first one put forward, but to keep your stats up to date the chances have gone “UP”, 5 years ago we normally heard the average chance of about 4%-7% chance of survival “Without Brain Damage, however after only 5 years of study and practicing of new techniques the resuscitation rate is now actually 22%-26%. We are teaching it the best way possible and its working!

Those with DNR’s will also have CPR performed on them weather they wanted it or not, its simply said like this “Will a Paramedic look through your Freezer for your DNR? Will they go through your wallet to find it?” The answer being NO means that if a Paramedic or even someone in the general public finds “You” and “You are NOT” breathing and have no pulse… “We will Start CPR on you” DNR’s are for Doctors, Lawyers and Hospice Facilities.

Can you kill someone by performing CPR on them? Well if you think about how the skill is designed the answer should be quite easy. CPR is designed to help push or supply blood and oxygen to the organs that need it if the heart has failed. The CPR technique of compression’s “Building Blood Pressure to force blood through the body” & Breaths providing the main fuel the body uses to support life. CPR is designed to save your life, not stop it, the chance of you doing more harm than good once someone has stopped breathing is “Minimal” CPR SAVES LIVES, don’t worry “Anyone Can Do It”.

Can you hurt someone by doing CPR? Simply put its life over limb, which means don’t worry about breaking a rib “the ribs will NOT” puncture the lungs. Paramedics have had a slogan for many years “If the ribs POP, Don’t Stop!! But if you hit the Spine, that’s NOT fine!! Depth is something to consider as you need to push Hard & Fast on ALL age groups, if you break a rib DON’T STOP, just DON’T Bottom out, you want to use hard pressure just not enough to crush them.

Can you get sued by performing CPR? Depending on where you live the answer is almost always NO. When someone’s life is in danger and you attempt to save their life you are doing what you thought was necessary to save a life. Alberta. Canada has what is known as the Emergency Medical Aid Act also known as the Good Samaritan Act which helps protect First Aid providers from Liability issues and allows them to act in the victims best interest to preserve their life. Don’t hesitate just do what you can!

To avoid any liability issues just remember to:

a) Get Consent / Permission /Cooperation

b) Stick within your level of training “Do what you KNOW”

c) Don’t make it worse “Help them don’t hurt them”

Last and final question, about the difference between the age groups and how we perform CPR. As previously stated in other posts age groups are separated like this:

Infants – Age 0-1 “Or toddlers”

Children – Age 1-Puberty “normally found from age 8 and up”

Adult – Any sign of puberty

For the General public we will always refer to the “Skill” of CPR as being performed “The Same” on all age groups, its the technique we modify for the smaller size of the victim we are rescuing. For our general public CPR is performed by providing 30 Chest Compression’s and Giving 2 Breaths, this skill is the same for “All Age Groups”.

We never know what can happen, its always good to be prepared and have the knowledge we need to help those who need it.

This material is for information purposes only and is taken from The Canadian Red Cross / Alberta Heart & Stroke Foundation & Alberta Health Services. This information should not be used in place of medical, Technical advice, instructor, and/or treatment. If you have questions, speak to your local Physician or Safety Training Facility.

Just Remember:

Protect Yourself!!! Call 911!!! Don’t Waste Time!!!

Learn First Aid Today & Save a Life Tomorrow with Saving Grace Medical Academy Ltd.

#FirstAidCourseEdmonton #FirstAidAndBasicLifeSupport #BasicLifeSupport #BLS #BLSforHCP #BCLS #BCLSCourseEdmonton #ACLS #AdvancedCardiovascularLifeSupport #MFR #EmergencyMedicalResponder #ITLS #CPR #HowToDoCPR #CPRTutorial #WhatToKnowAboutCPR