Category Archives: First Aid Techniques

Basic Life Support Training in your area

Welcome!

We want to help, our Pre-Requisite courses for Health Care Professionals are in full swing to get you prepared for your next practical experience placement, like our Standard First Aid or Basic Life Support Provider CPR class through the Heart & Stroke Foundation.

-GOOD NEWS-

We’re Open and Better than ever!

Saving Grace Medical Academy has been a long time supporter of education, to continue our goals of higher education we have moved into the “Fulton Place School” in support of the Edmonton Public School Board. What better way to support education and our future than by supporting our very own local Edmonton Public School Board.

New Location

Fulton Place Edmonton Public School

10310 – 56 St NW, Edmonton, Ab, Ca

Classroom #2

We have new courses to help you get the education you need and certificates when you need them. If you are a #NursingStudent, #MedicalStudent ,#MedicalProfessional or any #HealthCareProfessional that is required to maintain Basic Life Support Provider CPR “BLS”, Advanced Cardiovascular Life Support “ACLS” or even Standard First Aid certificates for the Work Force, we have you covered.

As we continue to support education and our future health care professionals our primary in class training focus has been to provide Standard First Aid + BLS Provider training for the next level of future Nursing Students. This course is required for all students going into EMR, EMT, Nursing, and for practicum training with a current deadline of the end of August for your first semester.

While the training has changed at AHS “Alberta Health Services” from an in class educational platform, to a now online review and in house TEST for BLS Provider, we have not forgotten about you! We are still offering in class training for Basic Life Support Provider CPR & AED, ACLS Provider, Standard First Aid and even Red Cross Standard First Aid to ensure you get what you need, when you need it. Our class sizes are limited to ensure the safety of all in attendance and with this in mind we have the alternative online training methods available as well to reduce in class time (BLS 60 Blended Online, ACLS Blended Online, and Red Cross Blended – Online) are now options for you to help with your busy lifestyle.

In Class Training is still a GO!

We are now offering in class training for:

Heart & Stroke Foundation

  • Basic Life Support Provider CPR
  • BLS Renewal
  • BLS 60 Blended / Online
  • Standard First Aid + Basic Life Support Provider
  • Standard First Aid Renewal
  • Advanced Life Support ACLS
  • ACLS Renewal
  • ACLS Blended / Online

Canadian Red Cross

  • Standard First Aid CPR-C & AED “Blended 1 Day In Class Course”

Covid-19 Friendly Courses “Blended / Online Training”

To keep your students safe and continue to provide them the highest quality of training even during a pandemic, we are continuing to maintain our “Online Training Courses”, this reduces time in class and also gives us a fall back if another lock down were to occur, our students can relax in safety from home and still receive the education they need!

Heart & Stroke Foundation

  • Basic Life Support Provider 60 Blended Online
  • Advanced Cardiovascular Life Support Blended Online

Canadian Red Cross

  • Standard First Aid CPR-C & AED ” Blended Online”

The Pandemic VS Education

Many schools have been adversely affected by the Covid-19 Pandemic, with social distancing guidelines, cleaning guidelines, isolation guidelines and lack of supplies to maintain proper sterilization equipment we understood why so many businesses, functions, social gatherings and schools had closed.

We support Edmonton Public Schools

We have new procedures, new courses, a new classroom and all the Covid-19 Pandemic supplies to maintain a cheerful, fun, educational and safe environment for Students of all ages

For more details on the courses we have to help you get back on track, please visit us at

SAVING GRACE MEDICAL ACADEMY

Getting you the courses you need, when you need them!

What is Gout?

What is Gout?

Gout is a painful condition similar to arthritis involving the joints as the body is subjected to an imbalance of Uric Acid build up. The joints are the most commonly affected part of the body, especially the big toes and knee’s. When the big toes are involved it is known as “Podagra”. Uric Acid can also be deposited in the kidneys and urinary tract causing “Kidney Stones”, if left untreated this can also lead to “Kidney Damage”.

Progressive gout can cause bone deterioration and deformity of the extremities. When someone has many attacks over years, Tophaceous gout can develop. “Tophaceous Gout” means that a large amounts of Uric Acid crystals have accumulated into masses called “Tophi” aka “Toe-fi”. Tophi are visible and/or can be felt in the soft tissues over joints “Looking like large Cysts or Blisters on the joints”, this is especially common on fingers, hands, elbows, feet, and Achilles tendons. They can even have a white or yellow substance inside which could be drained when inflamed by medical professionals.

  • What causes Gout?

Gout is caused by a defect or damage to your renal system or commonly known as your Urinary System “Two Kidneys, Two Ureters, a Urethra and a Bladder”, this damage causes an abundance of “uric acid” to be formed. When we eat foods high in purines, the body breaks down the purines by creating uric acid, an over abundance of uric acid then can cause a painful condition involving the joints similar to arthritis as the body then accumulates uric acid unable to excrete it fast enough through normal bladder channels. About a third of those who produce high levels of Uric Acid will develop Gout, however it is not known why some people develop symptoms and others do not. Once the Uric Acid is in the blood stream it can form sharp, needle like crystals that are deposited in the joints, tendons, and surrounding tissues.

  • Risk Factors also include:
  1. Etiology “the cause, set of causes, or manner of causation”
  2. Obesity
  3. High Blood Pressure

Pathobiology “The branch of biology that deals with pathology

  1. Injury or recent surgery
  2. Fasting or Overeating “Irregular eating habits”
  3. Consuming excessive amounts of Alcohol on a regular basis.
  4. Diets high in meat, shellfish, and beverages sweetened with high-fructose corn syrup
  5. Taking medications that increase blood levels of uric acid “Diuretics”

Pathology “the science of the causes and effects of diseases

  • Renal Defect “Defects to your Kidneys, Uriters, Bladder or Urethra”

Diagnosis

Gout can be diagnosed by confirming and identification of monosodium urate crystals in synovial fluid of the affected joint or tissue. The Fluid is drawn from the affected joint to look for the uric acid crystals and often clinicians will treat the gout when there are both classic symptoms and high levels of uric acid in the blood. X-rays of the affected joint may also show calcium-containing crystal deposits in the cartilage and further options may be discussed with your physician on treatment.

  • Symptoms of GOUT

Symptoms of “Acute Gout” are sudden, severe joint pain with redness, swelling, and tenderness of the joint. The joint may feel quite warm to the touch and even throb.

Pain in your big toes

Pain in your knees, ankles, wrists and or elbows

Intense pain that strikes in the middle of the night “Knees and lower extremities are often the first to strike”

Pain that occurs in flares: rapidly worsens, then starts to ease up in the joints.

Strange lumps and bumps around your joints

Kidney Stones

Distortion of joints along fingers and toes “Tophi Gout”

  • Complications

Rapidly progressing “Osteoarthritis” can occur due to wearing down joint cartilage, bone cysts or spurs, and even fractures may occur with prolonged gout flairs.

  • Pseudo gout – Like Gout, pseudo gout is a form of arthritis that causes sudden joint pain and swelling. The “Pseudo” part means that it looks like something else. The term Pseudo Gout is used because this is very similar to gout, while gout is caused by “uric acid crystals” pseudo gout is caused by “calcium pyrophosphate dehydrate crystals CPPD. Though the two have similar symptoms, treatment is somewhat different.

Pseudo gout causes sudden attacks of joint pain, swelling, and warmth of the flesh in the affected area and even fever. The attacks can last for days to weeks. The knee is the most commonly affected but it can also affect the ankles, feet, shoulders, elbows, wrists or hands “any joint”. CPPD crystals can also be deposited in the joint cartilage and never cause symptoms.

Treatments of Gout

There is “no” treatment that can “completely” remove or prevent the formation of calcium pyrophosphate dehydrate crystals CPPD “The pain causing calcium crystals in the joints” caused by Pseudo-Gout . Treatments for Gout and Pseud-Gout are generally aimed at reducing pain, swelling and the cause.

Medications

  1. Acute Gout – May be treated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs NSAIDS, cortico-steroids
  2. – Colchicine – Often used by people who cannot tolerate NSAIDS. Colchicine can have significant side effects based on the dose used. These side effects include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and abdominal pain.
  3. -Steroids “Prednisone” – Used in people who cannot take NSAIDS’s or Colchicine. Prednisone is associated with an increased risk of a recurrent gout attack.
  4. -Other Medications like “Politicise “Krystexxa”, Probenecid, Xanthine oxidase inhibitors or Haloperidol “Zyloprim” or febuxostat “uloric” may be prescribed by your physician. Please consult your doctor for more information.
  5. – Serum urate-lowering therapy “Talk to your physician about this option”

Prophylactic Therapy – “Medicine or course of action used to prevent disease

  • Prophylactic Therapy is used to prevent or reduce the number of acute Gout attacks. It is used when someone has repeated gout attacks, or has already had joint damage or developed tophi.

Long-Term treatment is aimed at lowering the level of uric acid in the blood so that crystals do not form. Colchicine is often used at low doses for a period of time while drugs that lower uric acid levels are started. “Allopurinol” is one of the most commonly used long term drugs. Allopurinol prevents the formation of uric acid, however it can have side effects including “rash, low white blood cell counts, diarrhea and fever”.

For more information please consult your local physician for options that will suite you body’s needs.

Lifestyle

  1. Obesity is a strong risk factor for developing gout or having an acute gout attack. This risk is especially high in those with known cardiovascular disease CVD.
  2. Dietary changes can reduce the frequency of attacks

Reduce

  • – Avoiding “Red Meat”, including wild game
  • – Avoiding particular seafood especially “shellfish and large salt water fish”
  • – Decrease intake of “Saturated Fats”
  • – Reduce Alcohol Consumption – Alcohol especially “Beer” interferes with the body’s natural ability to eliminate uric acid from the body.
  • – Avoiding foods and beverages containing “high-fructose corn syrup”
  • – Joint immobilization – Patients may be advised to avoid weight bearing “walking or running” if the legs or feet are involved and to limit activity for a period of time to minimize pain and swelling. A splint may be used temporarily to limit movement.

Increase

  • – Increased dietary protein from “low-fat” dairy products
  • – Increase intake of “whole grains, brown rice, oats or beans
  • – Coffee Moderate use “may decrease blood uric acid levels”
  • – Vitamin C 500mg daily has a mild effect on lowering uric acid levels
  • – Cherries, blueberries, purple grapes, and raspberries have also been found to be beneficial at lowering uric acid levels and promoting a healthy renal system.
  • – Weight loss significantly reduces the risk of Gout

Support for Gout

For more information please consult your local physician or visit your local online medical group dedicated to Gout.

If your symptoms get worse at any time or you notice new symptoms from the list above, call your doctor or Health Link “811 in Alberta”. You can also call the “Health Link Alberta 24/7 if you have questions about C.Diff or any of the information in this handout.

This material is for information purposes only. It should not be used in place of medical advice, instruction, and/or treatment. If you have questions, speak to your doctor or appropriate healthcare provider.

In any emergency just remember to Protect Yourself!!! Call 911!!! Don’t Waste Time!!!

Learn First Aid Today, Save a Life Tomorrow, let Basic Life Support training in Edmonton be your Saving Grace

What is SIDS “Sudden Infant Death Syndrome?

SIDS “Sudden Infant Death Syndrome”

What is SIDS “Sudden Infant Death Syndrome?

– SIDS “Sudden Infant Death Syndrome” is defined as a sudden unexplained death before 1 year of age. The death usually occurs in a previously healthy infant, and the cause of death remains unexplained despite a thorough investigation , including a complete autopsy, death scene investigation, and review of the clinical history.

In May of 2022 a news article was published with the tag “We have found the Cause of SIDS”. Sadly, this was a little premature as the researches enter the preliminary stages of their testing and data.

The study in question, published May 6 in the journal EBioMedicine, was fairly straightforward. Carmel Harrington, a sleep medicine specialist at the Children’s Hospital in Westmead, Australia, tested for levels of the enzyme butyrylcholinesterase in the blood. She and two co-authors thought the enzyme might play a role in SIDS. Sure enough, in dried blood spots that had been taken in the first day or two of life, they found that in 67 infants who later died of SIDS, levels of the enzyme were on average only 73 percent as high as in children who died of other causes.

The finding makes sense because the enzyme plays an important role in regulating the autonomic nervous system, which controls breathing, heart rate and other basic bodily functions. Infants who die of SIDS are believed to have a dysfunctional autonomous nervous system: When their blood-oxygen level dips during sleep, they remain still, rather than gasping, crying, arching their backs and otherwise making sure they get enough air.

But the study was small, and the finding on low butyrylcholinesterase levels in SIDS was the first time such an observation has been made. Doctors say, therefore, that it has to be replicated in a larger group before they will take it seriously.

Additionally, researchers say, while the lower level of the enzyme in SIDS infants was statistically significant by one measure, it was not significant by another, more common statistical test, so the association could be due purely to chance.

“I would love for this to be true,” said Jose Javier Otero, MD, PhD, associate professor and director of neuropathology at Ohio State University’s College of Medicine, where he researches potential biomarkers for SIDS. “It’s what everybody would like to have: something simple you can test in the blood. That’s why it’s exciting. But whether or not it’s true is very much up in the air.”

But…. Don’t discourage yourself after reading this update, there is a strong correlation in SIDS and “low butyrylcholinesterase levels”, the research will continue and the research teams believe that they are now looking in the right direction for answers. With some more funding, research and public attention the research team believes that they may have more within this year to back their findings.

  • “Here is what we know to be Scientific Research so far on SIDS”

What causes SIDS?

Unfortunately “Doctors do not know what causes SIDS”. It seems to happen more often in premature and low-birth-weight babies however. It also is seen more often in babies who’s mothers didn’t get medical care during the pregnancy and in babies who’s mothers smoke. SIDS may also be more likely in babies who were part of a multiple pregnancy “twins for example” or who’s mothers are younger than 20.

SIDS has also been associated with a sleep period but is unpredictable. It is often referred to as a “diagnosis of exclusion” because it is determined only after ruling out other causes of death, including suffocation, infection, or other illnesses.

SIDS is also “not” the cause of every sudden infant death. Each year in North America thousands of infants tragically die suddenly of no immediate or obvious cause. These deaths are classified as SUID.

SUID “Sudden Unexplained Infant Death” includes all unexpected deaths. These deaths without a clear cause, such as SIDS, and those from a known cause, such as accidental suffocation. Many unexpected infant deaths are accidents, but a disease or another external factor, such as poisoning or neglect, can also cause an infant to die unexpectedly. One-half of SUID cases are SIDS.

Sleep-Related causes of infant death” – These deaths are not SIDS – These causes are linked to how or where a baby sleeps or slept, accidental suffocation, entrapment “trapped between two objects ie: Mattress / Wall” , strangulation or when something presses on or wraps around the baby’s neck blocking the baby’s airway.

Risk Factors:

Age: “Birth 0 – 6 Months”

SIDS has “NO” symptoms or warning signs, babies who die from SIDS seem healthy before being put to bed, they will show “NO” signs of struggle and are often found in the same position as when they were placed in bed.

While the cause of SIDS is unknown, many physicians and researchers believe that SIDS is associated with problems in the ability of the Baby to arouse from sleep, to detect low levels of Oxygen or a build-up of carbon dioxide in the blood. When babies sleep face down, they may re-breathe exhaled carbon dioxide. Normally, rising carbon dioxide levels activates nerve cells in the brain stem, which stimulate the brain’s respiratory and arousal centers “Provoking a movement response to clear the airway”, a Baby will “wake up” turn its head and breath faster to get more oxygen. SIDS may cause the baby to fail to wake.

  • Babies who sleep on their stomach or their sides rather than their back.
  • Overheating while sleeping “Febrile Seizures, Coma, Death”
  • Too soft a sleeping surface, with fluffy blankets or toys.
  • Smoking During Pregnancy “Smoking During pregnancy increases the likelihood of SIDS by three times” This also includes “Tobacco , Marijuana or Illicit Drugs
  • Exposure to passive smoke “Second Hand Smoke” This also doubles the chances for SIDS
  • Young mothers under 20
  • Babies born to mothers who had little, late or no prenatal care
  • Premature or low birth weight babies
  • Hereditary factors like siblings who have died of SIDS
  • Co-Sleeping or Sharing the same sleeping surface “such as a bed” with an individual other than a parent or sharing the same sleeping bed with an individual who is overly tired, under the influence of alcohol / drugs or overweight.
  • The infant has underlying birth defects “ie: brain stem” that make the baby unable to respond to low oxygen or high carbon dioxide blood levels.

Diagnosis

A physician will name SIDS as the cause of death “only” when no other cause is found. To find out why a baby died, medical experts will review the baby’s and parents medical histories, study the area where the baby died and combine an in depth medical exam “autopsy” to find the true cause. If no cause can be determined it will be declared as SIDS / SUDS.

Prevention

Medical professionals have linked many preventative techniques in reducing the risk of SIDS / SUDS. For more information or details on how you can reduce the risk for your baby please consult your local Pediatrician.

The most important thing you can do is to “Always place your baby to sleep on his or her back” rather than on the stomach or side.

  • Don’t smoke while you are pregnant, and don’t expose your baby to second hand smoke after your baby is born.
  • For the first 6 months have your baby sleep in a crop, cradle, or bassinet in the same room where you sleep. It is a safer sleeping arrangement than sharing a bed. Many families choose to “Co-Sleep or Bed-hare” or find that they end up bed-haring even if they do not plan to do so. Bed-sharing should be discussed with your pediatrician.
  • Reduce your use of alcohol or recreational medications such as drugs. If you smoke or have used alcohol, drugs, or medications that can alter your sleep pattern “Sedatives” bed-sharing is especially risky and should be avoided.
  • Never sleep with a baby on a couch or armchair, and it is “not safe” to place your baby on a couch to sleep. The safest place for a baby is in a crib, cradle, or bassinet that meets safety standards and has a firm mattress.
  • Car Seats – Some babies fall asleep while traveling in a car seat. Keep an eye on a baby sleep in in a car and take your baby out of the car seat frequently during long trips and when you reach your destination. Babies should “not” be left to sleep in a car seat, stroller, baby swing, sling or bouncer seat because their airway may become restricted.
  • Toys / Accessories” Keep soft items and loose bedding out of the crib. Items such as blankets, stuffed animals, toys or pillows could suffocate or trap your baby. Dress your baby in sleepers instead of using blankets or provide a small enough blanket that can easily be kicked off.
  • Crib” Make sure the crib mattress is “Firm not soft” with a fitted sheet. Do “not” use bumper pads or other products that attach to crib slats or sides. They could suffocate your baby.
  • Keep the room temperature comfortable so that your baby can sleep in lightweight clothing without a blanket if need be. To gauge this, the temperature is about right if an adult can wear a long sleeved T-shirt and pants without feeling cold. Your baby is likely too hot if they sweat or toss and turn a lot.
  • Breastfeed your baby if possible – Breastfed babies have a lower chance of SIDS / SUDS.
  • Consider giving your baby a pacifier at nap time and bedtime. Experts do not know why, though babies who bottle feed to sleep or use a pacifier are at lower risk for SIDS.

– NOTE –

There is no sure way to prevent SIDS, and no test can predict weather a baby is likely to die of SIDS. “Do not” rely on breathing “apnea” monitors, special mattresses, or other devices marketed as a way to reduce your baby’s risk for SIDS. “NONE” of these items have been proved to lower the risk of SIDS and the Public Health Agency of Canada and other experts “do not” advise their use.

Remember SIDS is rare. Be as safe as you can, but don’t let fear keep you from enjoying your baby.

If you have a caregiver or baby sitter, ensure they know all the steps to protecting the child from sudden events that could harm them.

– Above all else – If your Baby tragically is lost to SIDS “You are NOT to blame

  • Do not hesitate to seek emotional support or grief counseling, join a support group or even rely on family to help support you through this tragic loss. For a list of local Emotional and Mental Health links contact “211” in Alberta for a free access to the Mental Health Link.

If your have worries or wish to speak with a medical practitioner about concerns call your doctor or Health Link “811 in Alberta”. You can also call the “Health Link Alberta 24/7 if you have questions about SIDS or any of the information in this handout.

This information was taken From Health Link British Columbia SIDS Information slip, American Pediatric Society, US Department of Health & Human Services, Infant Death Investigation Foundation, Stollery Children’s Hospital, Boston Children’s Hospital.

This material is for information purposes only. It should not be used in place of medical advice, instruction, and/or treatment. If you have questions, speak to your doctor or appropriate healthcare provider.

In any emergency just remember to Protect Yourself!!! Call 911!!! Don’t Waste Time!!!

Learn Basic Life Support Today & Save a Life Tomorrow, let first aid training in Edmonton be your Saving Grace.

#SIDS #BLS

LEAD Poisoning

LEAD Poisoning

What is Lead Poisoning?

Although many countries have initiated programs to lower the level of “Lead” in the environment, human exposure to lead remains of concerns to health care providers and public health officials worldwide. Several methods are used to detect elevated blood lead levels. The presence of changes in blood cells visible under a microscope or deletion of dense lines in the bones of children can be seen on X-Ray’s are some of the signs of Lead poisoning.

Lead Poisoning” is a medical condition that occurs when people are exposed to lead compounds through inhalation, swallowing, and rarely, through the skin. Lead is a colorless, tasteless, and odorless metal that may be found in dirt, dust, toys, dishes, and furniture. Lead poisoning usually occurs from repeated exposure to small amounts of lead.

What causes Lead Poisoning?

Until the 1970’s, lead was commonly added to gasoline and house paint in North America. It remains in our environment within: older house paint, ammunition, fishing gear, weights, plumbing pipes and faucets. Lead can contaminate drinking water when lead solder is used to connect a homes plumbing system. Lead is also found in pewter pitchers, dinnerware, toys, storage batteries, and hobbies involving soldering such as stained glass, jewellery making, pottery glazing, paint sets and art supplies and miniature lead figures.

How does lead damage the body?

Lead mimics biologically helpful minerals such as calcium, iron, and zinc. Most lead settles in the bone, interfering with the production of red blood cells “leading to anemia”. It also interferes with the absorption of calcium, which is required for strong bones, muscles, healthy muscle contraction, and blood vessel function.

  • Children under the age of six, especially unborn babies, are most susceptible to lead poisoning because their brains and central nervous systems are still developing.

Childhood lead poisoning can cause:

  • Reduced IQ
  • Learning disabilities
  • Attention Deficit Disorders
  • Behavioral Problems
  • Stunted Growth
  • Hearing Problems
  • Anemia
  • Kidney Damage
  • Stomach Pain
  • Mental Disabilities or retardation
  • Seizures
  • Coma
  • Death

Adult Lead Poisoning:

Exposure in adults has a multitude of symptoms and often starts with abdominal pain and cramping, this may be followed by vomiting, staggering gait, muscle weakness, seizures or coma.

  • High Blood Pressure
  • Fertility Problems
  • Nerve Disorders
  • Muscle and Joint Pain
  • Irritability
  • Memory or Concentration Problems
  • Aggressive Behavior
  • Decreased Appetite
  • Low Energy
  • Difficulty Sleeping
  • Headaches
  • Reduced Sensations
  • Constipation

Can Lead Poisoning Be Prevented?

Yes – Lead Poising is “Entirely” Preventable

How do you know if you have Lead poisoning?

A simple blood test is the screening test for lead poising. The current “level of concert” set by the U.S Center of Disease Prevention and Control is 10 micro-grams per deciliter, though recent studies indicate that there is “no safe level” of lead in the blood. Preventing lead poisoning before it occurs is “Paramount”

Treatment

Treatment depends on how much lead is in the blood. In cases of mild lead poisoning, the source is identified, then removed or minimized. Appropriate nutrition is advised. In cases of severe lead poisoning, with blood lead levels equal to or above 45 micro-grams per deciliter, children are admitted for “chelation therapy“, which are medications that bind to and remove lead from the body.

Emergency medical care is “required” in severe cases of lead poisoning,. Contact your physician for more information on treatments and ways lead poisoning can be managed.

If your symptoms get worse at any time or you notice new symptoms from the list above, call your doctor or Health Link “811 in Alberta”. You can also call the “Health Link Alberta 24/7 if you have questions about C.Diff or any of the information in this handout.

This information was taken From Center of Disease Control “CDC” (Lead Poisoning Guide) Information slip, Delaware Health & Social services Public Health Division, W.H.O World Health Organization. Center of Disease Control Canada

“This material is for information purposes only. It should not be used in place of medical advice, instruction, and/or treatment. If you have questions, speak to your doctor or appropriate healthcare provider.”

In any emergency just remember to Protect Yourself!!! Call 911!!! Don’t Waste Time!!

Learning First Aid Today can Save a Life Tomorrow, let your first aid training in Edmonton be your Saving Grace

COPD “Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease”

COPD “Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease”

What is COPD “Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease?

– Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease “COPD” is a common, “lung” disease that is characterized by persistent airway and/or alveolar abnormalities leading to a limitation of airflow caused by a significant exposure to noxious particles or gases. The “Chronic” airflow limitation is caused by a mixture of respiratory diseases “e.g: Obstructive Bronchiolitis, emphysema…

What causes COPD?

Around the world, the most common risk factor that increases your chance of contracting COPD is “Tobacco Smoking”. Other risk factors that are now clinically proven to be linked to COPD are associated with exposure to airborne particulates such as “pipe smoking, cigar, water pipe / bong, marijuana smoking, airborne exposure to smoke…etc” Non smokers may also develop COPD due to a continual long-term exposure to noxious gases & particles, combined with a variety of factors like genetics, airway hyper-responsiveness and poor lung growth during childhood.

Risk Factors also include:

Etiology “the cause, set of causes, or manner of causation”

  • Smoking
  • Inhaling Pollutants “Indoor / Outdoor”
  • Occupational Exposures “Biomass Fuel / Natural Gas / Particulate Dust
  • Genetic factors “Hereditary deficiency of alpha-1 antitypic AATD

Pathobiology “The branch of biology that deals with pathology”

  • Impaired Lung Grown “Growth Disorder / Disease”
  • Accelerated Decline in lung tissue “Disease”
  • Lung Injury
  • Lung & Systemic Inflammation “Disease”
  • Chronic Bronchitis
  • Asthma & Airway Hyper-Reactivity

Infections

Pathology “the science of the causes and effects of diseases”

  • Small Airway disorders or abnormalities “Disease / Disorder”

Diagnosis

COPD should be considered by all medical practitioners for a patient who is expressing dyspnea “difficult or labored breathing”, chronic cough or sputum production, and/or history of exposure to risk factors as mentioned above. Other factors to consider include recurrent lower respiratory tract infections, family members with diagnosed COPD and a history of risk factors as mentioned. A detailed medical history must be gone through with the patient and “Spirometry” should be tested to ensure a proper diagnosis. “Please consult your local physician for more information

Differential Diagnosisdifferentiating between two or more conditions”

Asthma verses COPD, a major differential diagnosis is Asthma, and in many patience with chronic asthma, a clear distinction from COPD is not possible using current medical imaging and physiological testing techniques. In patience with chronic Asthma, current medical management of COPD verses Asthma is similar and grants relief for the sufferer from symptoms. However there are some key points that can help separate Asthma from COPD like “Onset in Mid-Life vs. Onset early in life often childhood” or “Symptoms slowly progress and worsen where Asthma would have symptoms that vary widely from day to day” Some other common illness with the same symptoms also fall into Differential Diagnoses with more clear seperations like “Congestive Heart Failure, Bronchiectasis, Tuberculosis, Obliterative Bronchialitis & Diffuse Panbronchiolitis”.

The goal of a COPD assessment are to determine the severity of airflow restrictions, its impact on the patients health and the risk of future events that could lead to serious complications leading to hospitalization or even death.

Please consult your physician if you believe you have COPD and request full “Spirometry / breathing test / lung function test” testing.

Symptoms of COPD

  • Feeling short of breath while resting or when doing physical activity
  • Cough “Chronic
  • Wheezing
  • Fatigue
  • Mucus production that does not go away

In some patients, COPD can also cause the oxygen levels within the blood to become low. If this occurs, a person can be given supplemental oxygen to counter the symptoms. Breathlessness should not be confused with low oxygen levels. People with COPD can experience shortness of breath or have a hard time breathing even if they have good oxygen levels. Therefore, breathlessness is not always a good guide for weather you need to use oxygen.

Treatments

To formulate a proper treatment plan, please consult your physician after diagnosis. Some main points your physician will go over with you are, “For Smokers, this includes Tobacco, Cannabis, Vaping, Cigars, all inhaled vapors or particles”, the first step is to “Stop Smoking”. To aid in the cessation of smoking, programs, medications and therapy have been made available to all forms of smoking addictions being from either tobacco or cannabis, “Please consult your physician for more details on what works for you”.

Medications

Medications may also be prescribed “by your physician” to relieve symptoms of COPD and prevent symptom flare ups that can lead to further loss of lung function.

Lifestyle

Proper Nutrition & staying in good physical shape are also important not just for symptom relief, but also for your quality of life. Pulmonary rehabilitation programs offer supervised exercise and education for those with breathing problems and should be a part of a comprehensive treatment plan for anyone with COPD.

Support Groups

Many communities also offer support groups that can provide education and opportunities for COPD patience and their caregivers to share their experience with other people with COPD and families.

Surgery

In some cases, surgical procedures such as a lung volume reduction surgery or lung transplantation may be an option to consider. Please refer to your physician for this advanced treatment.

Q&A

What is Emphysema?

Answer” – Emphysema is a condition in which the air sacs of the lungs are damaged and enlarged, causing breathlessness.

Can COPD be fatal?

Answer” – Yes / No, Normally COPD is not Fatal, however left untreated and without proper attention it can worsted to the point of potentially fatal lung damage that can leave very few options. Please consult your Physician before symptoms worsen.

Can COPD be treated?

Answer” – Yes, Please consult your physician for testing, treatments and plants to put in place to help increase your chance of success

Is Smoking Cannabis as bad as Tobacco for COPD?

Answer” – Yes, all inhaled smokes, vapors, particulates that can affect the airflow to your lungs / heart / brain can have an adverse effect on lung function and eventually after exposure will lead to long lasting damage or side effects.

Will COPD ever go away?

Answer” – NO, COPD is a lifelong condition, the lungs have been damaged and can never fully return to normal. Therefore the breathlessness and fatigue may never go away entirely, but people can learn to manage their condition and continue to lead a fulfilling life with steps to be proactive like, stop all forms of smoking, take medication regularly and attend pulmonary rehabilitation.

If your symptoms get worse at any time or you notice new symptoms from the list above, call your doctor or Health Link “811 in Alberta”. You can also call the “Health Link Alberta 24/7 if you have questions about C.Diff or any of the information in this handout.

This information was taken From Center of Disease Control “CDC” (COPD Guide) Information slip, American Thoracic Society, Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease “GOLD GUIDE”, National Institute of Health COPD Action Plan Guide, University of Michigan COPD Assessment Guide for Medical Professionals.

“This material is for information purposes only. It should not be used in place of medical advice, instruction, and/or treatment. If you have questions, speak to your doctor or appropriate healthcare provider.”

In any emergency just remember to Protect Yourself!!! Call 911!!! Don’t Waste Time!!!

Learn Blended Basic Life Support Today & Save a Life Tomorrow, let first aid training in Edmonton be your Saving Grace

Natural Gas Exposure

Natural Gas Exposure

What is Natural Gas?

Natural gas is a fossil fuel that is found beneath the earth’s surface. It has “no odor to begin with”, gas companies add “Mercaptan” a warning smell “rotten eggs” so that it can be easily detected if there is a leak. Natural gas mainly consists of methane, which is a highly flammable gas.

Natural gas can be burned to produce electricity, heat homes and has many other uses including residential, industrial and commercial use. It can even be used for fuel in some vehicles. As natural gas burns cleaner that other fossil fuels such as oil and coal, and the by-product of the combustion of Natural Gas is Carbon Dioxide and water it has been chosen as the main form of energy to heat furnaces, water heaters, space heaters, pool‘s, Jacuzzi‘s, fireplaces, clothes dryers, stoves and lights.

Where is Natural Gas found?

Fossil fuel based, Natural Gas is a non-renewable resource. Natural gas is found in deep underground rock formations or associated with other hydrocarbon reservoirs in coal beds and as methane clathrate. Petroleum is another non-renewable resource and fossil fuel found in close proximity to and with natural gas.

Natural gas is created naturally over the course of hundreds of millions of years. It is formed when layers of decomposing plants and animals are subjected to intense heat from the Earth and pressure from rocks. All this pressure, heat and millions of years turned the natural material into coal, petroleum and natural gas.

How to Recognize a Gas leak?

Smells like rotten eggs “When from Commercial Lines”

Natural Gas is Colorless

Exposure “Low Level”

Headaches and dizziness

Fatigue

Nausea

Irregular Breathing

Exposure “High Level”

Death by suffocation

Loss of consciousness

Nausea

Severe Headaches

Fatigue

Memory Problems

Lack of Coordination

What to do?

Evacuate the area by moving “Cross-Wind” of where you suspect the gas leak

Call 911 “Big leak” or in “North America – ATCO Gas – 1-800-511-3447”

First Aid is “not” normally required, If you smell Natural Gas “Rotten Eggs” Evacuate the area immediately, If irritation/redness develops or other symptoms, move away from exposure area into fresh air and flush eyes with clean water. If you suspect a Natural Gas leak

“Do Not” activate any source of ignition such as electrical switches, vehicles, telephones, cellular phone, two way radios or door bells. Eliminate ignition sources such as open flame or spark “natural gas is highly flammable”.

For more information contact your local Gas Retailer or Distributor, if you are wondering about getting a Gas Audit, or have your gas appliances inspected please contact your local Retailer.

“This material is for information purposes only and is taken from local Gas Distributors, MSDS or SDS “Safety Data Sheet” on Natural Gas and Atco Gas. This information should not be used in place of medical, contractor or HVAC Technician advice, instructor, and/or treatment. If you have questions, speak to your local Gas Distributor or appropriate Gas Retailer.”

We never know what can happen, its always good to be prepared and have the knowledge we need to help those who need it.

“This material is for information purposes only and is taken from The Canadian Red Cross / Alberta Heart & Stroke Foundation & Alberta Health Services. This information should not be used in place of medical, Technical advice, instructor, and/or treatment. If you have questions, speak to your local Physician or Safety Training Facility.”

Just Remember:

Protect Yourself!!! Call 911!!! Don’t Waste Time!!!

Learn First Aid Today & Save a Life Tomorrow with Saving Grace Medical Academy Ltd.

Saving Grace Medical Academy Ltd

What are Cysts?

Cysts

What is a Cyst? This article is designed to help you understand more about yourself, others, and the medical world around you. Many view the word “Cyst” as being unclean, or infectious, or disease bearing. The truth about Cycts is actually quite far from those.

What are Cysts?

Cysts are one of the most common benign tumors of the skin. They present as a round, rubbery, mobile mass that stretches out the overlaying skin and is tethered to the surface of the skin by a pore or “punctum”, this “punctum“ acts like a tether that allows the Cyst to “float“ more often than not in the surrounding bodily fluids.

Cysts can be found “anywhere on or in the body, and anyone can have them.

The term “Cyst” refers to a fluid-filled structure of cells, whereas a tumor consist of a mass of abnormal cells with abnormal growth potential. Cysts are not associated with tumors typically as they have a very thin rim surrounding the fluid and may be popped, whereas a tumor would have a thickened rim that surrounds it that expands with time.

Types of Cysts – arachnoid, colloid, dermoid, epidermis, pineal, cervical, breast, ganglion, etc…

What causes a Cyst?

Cysts frequently result from a plugging of the pore. A sac of skin forms and gets larger as it becomes filled with keratin, a component of your skin cells, CSF “Cerebral Spinal Fluid“, colloid, or blood. Keratin is a pasty, whitish material that sometimes can be expressed from the cyst and tends to have a foul odor.

Is a Cyst Harmful?

Often No, however there are circumstances where they could cause damage, lack of blood flow, or harmful pressure to build up on the surrounding tissue and organs. Normally cysts are “benign” and do not develop into cancers. Once in a while, they may rupture and become inflamed which results in redness, swelling and pain in the area. Sometimes pus will drain. To avoid inflammation or infection of a cysts, it is best “not” to squeeze it.

Does a Cyst need to be removed?

The majority of cysts cause no problems and therefore do not need to be removed, it is the location of the cyst and the level of discomfort that will dictate your desire to have them removed. On occasion, a cyst may become objectionably large, interfere with function, get inflamed or are symptomatic. In these cases, removal is achieved by local surgical excision. Small, asymptomatic cysts may be removed electively by contracting your physician to arrange an elective removal. “Always consult your physician before making body modifications.”

Very often, cysts do not produce any symptoms and do not enlarge over time. If a cyst is not causing symptoms and is not thought to be associated with a tumor, you might never develop a problem with the cyst. An operation to remove the cyst might carry a greater risk than living with the cyst. Your doctor can help you weight the risks of “watching and waiting” with the risks of undergoing surgery.

How can a doctor tell if the cyst is not cancerous? A CT “Cat Scan” or particularly, an MRI scan of a cyst generally shows no solid or nodular components that could suggest an associated “malignant tumor”. Sometimes, when a cyst appears benign but the doctor cannot be 100% certain, repeated radiological studies over time will be recommended. A malignant tumor would be expected to grow over time, whereas a benign cyst might not.

Is radiation therapy ever used to treat a Cyst? In general, radiation is used to kill dividing cells “cancerous growth”. The fluid inside a cyst does not contain dividing cells, and the cells forming the walls of most cysts “including arachnoid, colloid, dermoid, epidermis, and pineal cysts” are not dividing. If the cyst is suspected of being malignant or tumor related a pointed dose of radiation may be injected “into” the cyst to destroy the cells within, however this is rare and your physician would know more.

Will I develop more Cysts?

You may develop more cysts over time and there is no way to prevent this from happening. You may also only ever have one cyst in your lifetime. Cysts have many factors which allow the cells to grow in such a manor, environment, radiation exposure, mould, bacteria, viruses, the reason why a cyst would appear is quite vast and unfortunately not always apparent.

In general, if the wall of the cyst is completely removed, the chance of the cyst recurrence I quite low. If the cyst is drained but the “bubble” or sack that contained the fluid is left intact, the odds of fluid re-accumulating are much higher as the cell walls may “heal” and reseal fluid within.

Do I have a disease if I have a Cyst?

  • Answer – “No”

A cyst is a random event that does have some factors too their appearance. Typically a Cyst does not have an associated disease or cause, they are a random occurrence that anyone could have.

We never know what can happen, its always good to be prepared and have the knowledge we need to help those who need it.

“This material is for information purposes only and is taken from The Canadian Red Cross / Alberta Heart & Stroke Foundation & Alberta Health Services. This information should not be used in place of medical, Technical advice, instructor, and/or treatment. If you have questions, speak to your local Physician or Safety Training Facility.”

Just Remember:

Protect Yourself!!! Call 911!!! Don’t Waste Time!!!

Learn Basic Life Support Provider CPR & AED “HCP” Today & Save a Life Tomorrow with Saving Grace Medical Academy Ltd.

What is Hydrocephalus?

Hydrocephalus

What is Hydrocephalus?

Hydrocephalus is a condition in which there has been an excess build up of CSF “Cerebrospinal Fluid” a clear fluid surrounding the brain. The excessive accumulation of CSF results in an abnormal dilation of the spaces in the brain called “Ventricles”, this dilation causes harmful pressure to build up on the brain and connective tissues.

  • HydrocephalusWater on the Brain”, in Greek literally means “watery head”, “Hydro” meaning water, and “Cephalus” referring to the head.

“Hydrocephalus can happen at ANY age”

Hydrocephalus is life threatening and has a 75% chance of causing long lasting brain damage and motor disability, and a 30% mental disability rate.

More than 50% of hydrocephalus is congenital “present at birth”

What are Ventricles?

The ventricular system is a set of four interconnected cavities (ventricles) in the brain, where the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is produced. Within each ventricle is a region of choroid plexus, a network of ependymal cells involved in the production of CSF. The ventricular system is continuous with the central canal of the spinal cord (from the fourth ventricle) allowing for the flow of CSF to circulate. All of the ventricular system and the central canal of the spinal cord are lined with ependyma, a specialised form of epithelium.

What is CSF “Cerebrospinal Fluid?

Cerebrospinal Fluid, the clear fluid surrounding the brain and spinal cord has three critical functions:

It acts as a “Shock absorber” for the brain and spinal cord to protect the brains connective tissue from harmful impact damage and excess movement.

It acts as a river to flow nutrients to the brain and remove waste

It flows between the cranium and spine to regulate changes in pressure within the brain.

Common Causes

A variety of medical problems can cause hydrocephalus. In many children the problem is there at “birth”, this kind of hyrocephalis is referred to as “congenital”. Most cases of congenital hydrocephalus are thought to be caused by a complex interaction of genetic and environmental factors “Exposure to radiation, mold, virus, bacteria, genetic defect, impact damage in utero, Car accident and so on

  • Aqueductal Obstruction “Stenosis” – The most common cause of congenital hydrocephalus is obstruction “narrowing or blockage” of the cerebral aqueduct “a long, narrow passageway between the third and fourth ventricle in the brain.” NO FEVER”
  • Neural Tube Defects, or Myelomeningocele – Spina Bifida, meaning “Open spine”, actually refers to the condition in which the structures of vertebrae, muscles, ligaments, etc… supporting and protecting the spinal cord are impaired, not the spinal cord itself.
  • Intraventricular Haemorrhage – Intraventricular haemorrhage is an acquired form of hydrocephalus and most frequently affects premature newborns. It occurs when small blood vessels lying alongside the ventricular lining of the brain rupture. This can lead to scarring of the ventricles or plug the arachnoid villi sites of CSF absorption.
  • Meningitis & Bacterial / Viral Exposure – Meningitis is an inflammation of the membranes “Meninges” of the brain and spinal cord. It may be caused by bacterial infections or, less frequently, viral infections. FEVER
  • Head Trauma – A head trauma can damage the brains tissues, nerves or blood vessels. Blood from these ruptured vessels may enter the CSF pathways and cause blockage or restricted flow.
  • Tumors – In children, brain tumors most commonly occur in the back of the brain “posterior fossa”. as a tumor grows it may fill or compress the ventricles blocking the flow of CSF.
  • Cysts – Arachnoid cysts are congenital in origin and may occur anywhere in the brain. In children, they are often located in the back of the brain and in the region of the third ventricle.
  • Dandy-Walker Syndrome – Dandy-Walker Syndrome is where the fourth ventricle “last ventricle to the spine” is enlarged because of partial or complete closure of its outlets “no drainage of CSF”. Associated with developmental defects.

Symptoms “How to recognize it”

“If you suspect Hyrdocephalus DO NOT HESITATE, the Child’s life is in Danger!

  1. In Infant age 0-1: Abnormal Enlargement of Babe’s head, soft spot “fontanel” is tense and bulging: scalp can appear thin “Stretched due to the swelling” prominent scalp veins, NO FEVER in congenital hydrocephalus, vomiting, drowsiness, irritability, downward deviation of baby’s eyes “Sun-setting eyes”, seizure, poor appetite.
  2. In Child age 1-8: Headache “Rubbing at head or ears“, Nausea, vomiting, “NO FEVER in congenital hydrocephalus” lethargy, limp movements, unable to stay awake, poor coordination, change in personality, loss of motor functions, seizure and poor appetite, From Birth-Abnormal Enlargement of Babe’s head.
  3. In Adult age 8+: Headache, difficulty remaining awake or waking up, loss of coordination or balance, bladder control problems, impaired “double vision”, cognitive impairment
  4. Elderly – Loss of coordination or balance, shuffling gait, memory loss, headache, bladder control loss, forgetfulness, migraine like symptoms. Nausea, vomiting, drowsiness.

What can you do?

Take them to the Hospital Immediately! Hydrocephalus can easily be misdiagnosed as a viral infection and be prescribed antibiotics “This will not help in congenital hydrocephalusNO FEVER and lead to potential for increased brain damage. Hydrocephalus needs immediate surgery to minimize brain damage and potential for death.

Diagnosing Hydrocephalus

Parents should remember that this is “Not” your fault”

Your Doctor will recommend a course of treatment based on what they find, they will review medical history and perform examinations including a complete neurological examination with diagnostic testing. “Do not be afraid to ask questions regarding symptoms / options / treatments”, anything that you can think of to help narrow down the cause can impact the treatments available. The neurological examination will also help to determine the severity of the child’s condition. Further tests such as ultrasound “if the patient is an infant”, computed tomography “CT or CAT scan”, or a magnetic resonance imaging “MRI” may be ordered. The more your neurosurgeon knows the more likely the chance to minimize brain damage and death. They will also ask for information regarding head circumference at birth along with birth weight, health, defects and head development.

Treatments?

Hydrocephalus can be treated in only three or four ways with current medical technology “2018“. The problem area may be treated directly “removing the cause of CSF obstruction”, or indirectly by diverting the fluid somewhere else. In some cases, two procedures are performed, one to divert the CSF temporarily, and another on a later stage to remove the cause of the obstruction.

  1. Shunt – Often in the emergency setting hydrocephalus is treated at the beginning with a “Shunt”. A shunt is a flexible but sturdy silastic tube. A shunt system consist of the shunt, a catheter, and a valve. One end of the catheter is placed within a ventricle inside the brain, but also may be placed potentially within a cyst or site close to the spinal cord. The other end of the catheter is commonly placed within the abdominal cavity, but may also be placed at other sites within the body so excess CSF can be absorbed. “Shunt systems are not perfect devices” Complications may include mechanical failure, infections, obstructions, length, improper flow “too much or too little CSF” or deterioration. Each time the Shunt has a malfunction potential for brain damage increases exponentially.
  2. Obstruction Removal – Neurosurgery is performed to remove the blockage, cyst, tumor that is causing the blockage of CSF flow. CT – Cat scans and MRI’s are needed to see if this is an option, your Neurosurgeon will know once they have all the data and information for them to assess weather removing the obstruction is possible.
  3. Endoscopic Third Ventriculostomy “ETV” – This surgery involves making a hole in the floor of the third ventricle to allow free flow of spinal fluid into the basil cisterns for absorption of CSF. Many neurosurgeons “do not” perform ETV on children below the age of 2 due to the failure rate of up to 40%. However, ETV has the benefit of consistent pressure, flow and the lack of non natural parts within the body, this reduces the chance of malfunction leading to brain damage or death. Depending on the hydrocephalus ETV has a patency rate for up to five years with a 50%-80% no malfunction rate. “Candidacy” – ETV is clearly appropriate for treating “obstructive non-communication hydrocephalus” It is controversial as to weather it is effective in treating non-obstructive communication hydrocephalus. Although some neurosurgeons have used it successfully in these cases with a 1.0% infection rate.
  4. Endoscopic Third Ventriculostomy & Choriod Plexus Cauterization “ETV & CPC” – This technique combines ETV with a procedure called Choroid Plexus Cauterization “CPC”. CPC is where your neurosurgeon in the middle of the ETV inserts a specialized tool “wire” to cauterize the CP tissue beginning at the right foramen of Monro, and following it back to the typically mobile glomus choroideum in the atrium. Your neurosurgeon will have more details to explain the procedure, however by combining ETV and CPC the chances of successfully holding proper Intracranial CSF fluid pressure increase, infection rates decrease to 1.0% or less and raise the success rate of the procedures in general.

Communication VS Non-Communicating Deffinition

  • Communicating – Communicating Hydrocephalus is when the flow of CSF is blocked after exiting the ventricles, however CSF is still able to flow between the ventricles but is blocked from draining out.
  • Non-Communicating – Non-Communicating also known as “Obstructive” Hydrocephalus occurs from “Aqueductal stenosis” a narrowing of the tube “aquaduct of Sylvius” that flows between the 3rd ventricle and 4th ventricle before exiting to the spine. “This is the most common cause of Hydrocephalus”

Long Term Outcome

There is Hope” – The prognosis for patients diagnosed with hydrocephalus is difficult to predict, although there is some correlation between the specific “cause” of the hydrocephalus, the time between when symptoms began, diagnosis & treatment, as well as the age of the patients can influence the outcome. Brain Damage and complications are further compounded by the presence of associated disorders, the degree to which decompression “relief of CSF pressure or build-up” following shunt placement can also further complicate risks. Parents and guardians should be aware that up to 70% of hydrocephalus patience suffer from both cognitive and physical development disorders.

However “There is Hope” – Those affected by hydrocephalus benefit from rehabilitation therapies and educational interventions, many children go on to lean normal lives with few limitations. Treatment by an interdisciplinary team of medical professionals, rehabilitation specialists, and educational experts are critical to a positive outcome.

Although most children with hydrocephalus are within the normal range of intelligence, most experience “specific” learning difficulties. Immediate memory and auditory/verbal information may be intact, however, there is a rapid loss of information over time and difficulty in retrieving the appropriate bit of information due to brain tissue damage. Most students find it hard to organize themselves, plan ahead and think flexibly. In addition, some may experience difficulty in understanding the passage of time or understand when matters are urgent.

There are many resources out there to help you guide your child through this difficult emergency. For more information contact your physician and don’t be afraid to ask questions or seek support groups.

  • Hydrocephalus Association www.hydroassoc.org
  • Hydrocephalus Foundation INC www.hydrocephalus.org
  • National Hydrocephalus Foundation www.nhfonline.org
  • MedlinePlus: Hydrocephalus www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/hydrocephalus.html
  • Mayo Clinic.com www.mayoclinic.com/health/hydrocephalus/DS00390
  • National Institute of Neurological Disorders www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/hydrocephalus/hydrocephalus.html

We never know what can happen, its always good to be prepared and have the knowledge we need to help those who need it.

“This material is for information purposes only and is taken from The Canadian Red Cross / Alberta Heart & Stroke Foundation & Alberta Health Services. This information should not be used in place of medical, Technical advice, instructor, and/or treatment. If you have questions, speak to your local Physician or Safety Training Facility.”

Just Remember:

Protect Yourself!!! Call 911!!! Don’t Waste Time!!!

Learn ACLS Advanced Cardiovascular Life Support remewal Today & Save a Life Tomorrow with Saving Grace Medical Academy Ltd.

“HELP!!!” Emergency numbers of Alberta – Knowledge worth Knowing.

“HELP!!!” Emergency numbers of Alberta – Knowledge worth Knowing.

In Alberta Canada many people don’t know what “HELP” is available during an emergency. Who would you call if there was a wild or strange animal in your yard or in the neighborhood? If I am alone and frightened, depressed, scared of someone or something I cant explain who can I call? What is the Poison Control number? Animal Control? Fire? Ambulance? Police? These questions we’ll address as the Canadian Government has put some “Quick Access Numbers” into use that will help. We’ll explain below what each one is and how to utilize them.

911

In Alberta Canada like many other provinces 911 handles a multitude of Emergency Related phone calls. For this reason the Canadian Government has linked 911 to many other emergency hot lines to help streamline the process of getting Emergency Service Workers in touch with you. For this reason, This will help you as you only need to remember 911 and the 911 Dispatcher will help get you to the right emergency connection line. 911 is linked to:

  • – Animal Control,
  • – Poison Control,
  • – Police,
  • – Ambulance,
  • -Fire
  • – CSIS.

811

Health Link” a 24/7 call center provides a number of clinical services including tele-triage and health advice, navigation services and online content support for all Albertans by calling 811 or by using one of its companion web products, MyHealth.Alberta.ca or informAlberta.ca. The specific services include:

  • – Symptom-based nurse triage and health information
  • – System navigation
  • – Dementia Advice Service
  • – Catch-A-Break Osteoporosis screening
  • – AlbertaQuits Tobacco Helpline
  • – Addictions information and referral
  • – Central Access to specialized services
  • – Referrals to clinical services including Specialized Medication Advice and Dietitian Services

711

“NOT IN SERVICE”

611

“Phone Service Line” Will not help during emergencies

511

Traffic Information – Transportation Canada “Alberta” has put this number into service to help those on the highway remain safe and in the know. Road conditions can change rapidly as our weather changes along with driver conditions. This number will help you get in touch with an Automated / Representative that can help give you “Journey Management Options and risk levels” Drive safe

  • -“Remember” Stay Alive, Don’t Drink & Drive or Toke & Drive

411

Directory Services” This is a phone service which will connect you with the Canada 411 Phone Directory.

311

Municipal Services” 311 provides citizens with the choice of accessing Municipal information and services. 311 Citizen Services is your single point of contact for local government information and non-emergency services. Whether you’re a resident, a business owner, or a visitor, your connection to The City is at your finger tips. Non-English-speaking callers may request the assistance of an interpreter. The 311 agent will connect with an external interpretive service to assist with the call. The interpretive service offers assistance in more than 150 languages.

211

Community Health & Social Services” 211 is a free, confidential, multilingual, 24 hour information and referral system. 211 provides information on government and community based health and social services. 211 is available across the province. 211 can help with day-to-day needs and coping with stressful situations before they escalate into a crisis.

211 can provide support in the following situations:

• When you are looking for home care supports for seniors or individuals with disabilities

• When you are trying to find a job

• When you are looking for affordable childcare

• When you want to know where you can volunteer or donate your second-hand items

• When you don’t know where to go for alcohol and/or drug detoxification

• If you are thinking of post-secondary schooling and need to complete your high school diploma or find out how to apply for student loans

• If you are having a tough time finding enough money for food, rent, and other costs

• If you recently moved to Canada and need support connecting to resources

• If you’re a service provider and looking for resources for a client

#377” -City of Edmonton Only –

Non Emergency Police Dispatch” – Edmonton Police are trying to reduce the volume of 911 calls to allow true emergency calls to go through unimpeded. With High call volume 911 may be forced to put you on hold, to some during an emergency this could be fatal. To reduce the risk of fatal non connection with 911 the Alberta Government and the Edmonton City Police “EPS” created #377 to handle all Non-Life Threatening Calls that require police services.

#377 in Edmonton Handles:

– Thefts / Mischief

– Assaults

– Break and Enters into homes/businesses

– Child Abuse/Welfare concerns

– Disturbances/Noise complaints

– Missing Persons

– Sexual Assaults

– Property damage collisions where vehicles are not drivable

– Neighbor disputes

– Family disputes

– Frauds over $5,000.00

– Suspicious persons/vehicles

– Weapons/Gun complaints

Smart Phone Emergency SOS System

Many smart phones from the 4th generation and up will have an “SOS” system built into the OS itself, this can normally be accessed by pressing the “Power Button a specific set of times 3-5” This loud audible system when set to Auto Activation will automatically call 911 for you and send out an SOS text message to your “In Case of Emergency ICE contact”, they will receive a Picture and Text reading SOS “I need help” with the pictures and your GPS coordinates if options have been enabled properly.

For more information on your SOS system built within your smart device, please consult your Manufacturer.

NOTE – Many Emergency Medical Professionals have been taught to utilize this system in the absence of your consciousness to receive information about the casualty that the casualty wishes EMS to know. This helps EMS personnel alter their treatment plans to match the individual if they are rendered unconscious. This “app” is known as the “Medical ID App” pl;ease consult your manufacturer to see how to enable this life saving option as well.

We never know what can happen, its always good to be prepared and have the knowledge we need to help those who need it.

“This material is for information purposes only and is taken from The Canadian Red Cross / Alberta Heart & Stroke Foundation & Alberta Health Services. This information should not be used in place of medical, Technical advice, instructor, and/or treatment. If you have questions, speak to your local Physician or Safety Training Facility.”

Just Remember:

Protect Yourself!!! Call 911!!! Don’t Waste Time!!!

Learn Basic Life Support BLS-CPR Today & Save a Life Tomorrow with Saving Grace Medical Academy Ltd.

Hand, Foot & Mouth Disease : What you need to know

Hand, Foot & Mouth Disease : What you need to know

“Hand, foot and mouth disease is a very common viral disease of childhood which is easily passed from person to person. It usually causes a mild illness but rarely causes serious illness. It is not related to the foot and mouth disease that affects animals. Good hygiene helps prevent infection.”

What is hand foot and mouth disease?

Hand, foot and mouth disease is generally a mild illness caused by “Enteroviruses”, including “Coxsackieviruses”. It is usually not a serious illness and is not related to the foot and mouth disease that affects animals. It mainly occurs in children under 10 years of age but can also occur in older children and adults.

What are the symptoms?

Hand, foot and mouth disease starts with blisters that begin as small red dots which later become ulcers. Blisters appear inside the cheeks, gums, and on the sides of the tongue, as well as on the palms of the hands and soles of the feet. In infants, blisters can sometimes be seen in the groin area. Blisters usually last for 7-10 days.

Children can sometimes have a low fever, sore throat, tiredness, feel off or melancholy and may be hungry for a day or two.

Very rarely, “Enteroviruses” can cause other illnesses that affect the heart, brain, lining of the brain “meningitis”, lungs, or eyes.

How is it spread?

Hand, foot and mouth disease is usually spread by person to person contact “Direct Contact”. The virus is spread from the feces of an infected person to the mouth of the next person by contaminated hands. It is also spread by secretions “saliva, spittle, sneeze, cough, nasal secretions” from the mouth or respiratory system, and be direct contact with the fluid from the blisters.

The virus usually takes between three and five days after contact with an infected person before blisters appear. The virus can remain in feces from 4 to 8 weeks “Up to 2 months or longer in some cases“.

Who is at risk?

The viruses that cause “Hand, foot & mouth disease” are common and normally only affect children up to the age of 10, however some adults may be affected in rare cases.

Many adults, including pregnant women, are often exposed to these viruses without symptoms. There is no clear evidence of risk to unborn babies from hand, foot and mouth disease. However infected mothers can pass the infection onto newborn babies who lack the ability to fend of the virus.

Daycare / Childcare / After or Pre- school settings – Outbreaks may occur in childcare settings “more than 3 confirmed cases. “You do not need to report Hand, foot and mouth disease to AHS or the CDC“, however the Daycare / school / childcare facility MUST report the illness or disease to the Parents of the children attending the facility or those who may be affected and give information on: “what to look for, how to treat the illness and how to prevent the spread Hand, foot and mouth disease.

How is it prevented?

Hand washing & Good hygiene is the best protection. Wash hands with soap and water after going to the toilet, before eating, after wiping noses, and after changing nappies / diapers or soiled clothing.

Avoid sharing cups, eating utensils, items of personal hygiene “for example: towels, scrub brushes, face towels, loofah, toothbrushes”, and clothing “especially shoes, socks & underwear”.

Hand sanitizer and surface surface sanitizer

Thoroughly wash any soiled clothing and any surfaces that may have been contaminated

  • CLEANING – Hand, foot & Mouth is easily destroyed with Soap & Water, using solution of ¼ bleach & water, as well as alcohol based cleaning solutions.

Teach children about cough & sneeze etiquette “Cover your mouth when you cough / Sneeze into your sleeve” Coughing / Sneezing into an elbow is better than coughing into your hands.

Dispose of used tissues in the bin straight away, then wash your hands afterwards with soap and water.

How is it diagnosed?

Your doctor can diagnose hand, foot and mouth disease based on the symptoms, laboratory tests are “not” usually necessary as this disease “should” resolve itself within 5-10 days.

How is it treated?

Usually NO treatment is needed other than wound care.” Pharmaceuticals “Children’s Grade” to help lower fever and discomfort is available and does help with discomfort. “Do NOT give children aspirin”

Allow blisters to dry out naturally. The blisters should not be deliberately burst because the fluid within them is infectious. “Wash the affected area with soap and water, let dry with no ointment overnight”.

Topical antibiotic ointment like “Polysporin” may be used during the day ease tightness of the wounds, and help remove hard crusts that may appear, however the wounds must dry out overnight. “No Band-Aids or covers should be used”

  • Make sure young children are drinking enough as painful mouth sores can make some children reluctant to swallow liquids.

What are the signs of a SERIOUS infection?

  • Sings that an infant or older child might have a more serious form of hand, foot and mouth disease include any of the following:
  • Persistent Fever “38C or above for 72 hours or more”
  • Abnormal movements / jerking movements
  • Rapid breathing
  • Excessive tiredness, drowsiness
  • Excessive irritability
  • Difficulty walking

If any of these signs are present then the child should be seen by a doctor urgently even if they have been checked earlier in the illness.

How long should children stay away from Childcare & School settings?

Children with hand, foot and mouth disease should be excluded from school or childcare facilities until “Their blisters have dried-up”, and “any” rash “if present” has gone and “any” fever has settled.

  • Often Hand, foot & mouth will run its course within 5-10 days, but may last up to 2 weeks with possibly contamination in the stool up to 2 months.

A child will only need to stay away from public places as long as the symptoms present themselves, if the child maintains good hygiene and hand washing and keeps their hands to themselves they may be in public places, “hand washing is the key”

What is the public health response?

As mentioned earlier, Hand, foot and mouth disease is not a modifiable disease under the Public Health Act. HOWEVER, to help prevent spread, “Parents / Guardians / Teachers / Day-Care workersshould report the illness to the director of the childcare center or the school principal so that affected students / parents are notified on the illness.

Further information

In Alberta Canada you can contact the “Health Link by phoning 811” at anytime to speak to a Dedicated Health Care Professional. They will help answer your questions and go through the illness signs and symptoms with you..

This information was taken From Center of Disease Control “CDC” (Hand, Foot & Mouth Disease) Information slip.

We never know what can happen, its always good to be prepared and have the knowledge we need to help those who need it.

“This material is for information purposes only and is taken from The Canadian Red Cross / Alberta Heart & Stroke Foundation & Alberta Health Services. This information should not be used in place of medical, Technical advice, instructor, and/or treatment. If you have questions, speak to your local Physician or Safety Training Facility.”

Just Remember:

Protect Yourself!!! Call 911!!! Don’t Waste Time!!!

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