Hand, Foot & Mouth Disease : What you need to know

Hand, Foot & Mouth Disease : What you need to know

“Hand, foot and mouth disease is a very common viral disease of childhood which is easily passed from person to person. It usually causes a mild illness but rarely causes serious illness. It is not related to the foot and mouth disease that affects animals. Good hygiene helps prevent infection.”

What is hand foot and mouth disease?

Hand, foot and mouth disease is generally a mild illness caused by “Enteroviruses”, including “Coxsackieviruses”. It is usually not a serious illness and is not related to the foot and mouth disease that affects animals. It mainly occurs in children under 10 years of age but can also occur in older children and adults.

What are the symptoms?

Hand, foot and mouth disease starts with blisters that begin as small red dots which later become ulcers. Blisters appear inside the cheeks, gums, and on the sides of the tongue, as well as on the palms of the hands and soles of the feet. In infants, blisters can sometimes be seen in the groin area. Blisters usually last for 7-10 days.

Children can sometimes have a low fever, sore throat, tiredness, feel off or melancholy and may be hungry for a day or two.

Very rarely, “Enteroviruses” can cause other illnesses that affect the heart, brain, lining of the brain “meningitis”, lungs, or eyes.

How is it spread?

Hand, foot and mouth disease is usually spread by person to person contact “Direct Contact”. The virus is spread from the feces of an infected person to the mouth of the next person by contaminated hands. It is also spread by secretions “saliva, spittle, sneeze, cough, nasal secretions” from the mouth or respiratory system, and be direct contact with the fluid from the blisters.

The virus usually takes between three and five days after contact with an infected person before blisters appear. The virus can remain in feces from 4 to 8 weeks “Up to 2 months or longer in some cases“.

Who is at risk?

The viruses that cause “Hand, foot & mouth disease” are common and normally only affect children up to the age of 10, however some adults may be affected in rare cases.

Many adults, including pregnant women, are often exposed to these viruses without symptoms. There is no clear evidence of risk to unborn babies from hand, foot and mouth disease. However infected mothers can pass the infection onto newborn babies who lack the ability to fend of the virus.

Daycare / Childcare / After or Pre- school settings – Outbreaks may occur in childcare settings “more than 3 confirmed cases. “You do not need to report Hand, foot and mouth disease to AHS or the CDC“, however the Daycare / school / childcare facility MUST report the illness or disease to the Parents of the children attending the facility or those who may be affected and give information on: “what to look for, how to treat the illness and how to prevent the spread Hand, foot and mouth disease.

How is it prevented?

Hand washing & Good hygiene is the best protection. Wash hands with soap and water after going to the toilet, before eating, after wiping noses, and after changing nappies / diapers or soiled clothing.

Avoid sharing cups, eating utensils, items of personal hygiene “for example: towels, scrub brushes, face towels, loofah, toothbrushes”, and clothing “especially shoes, socks & underwear”.

Hand sanitizer and surface surface sanitizer

Thoroughly wash any soiled clothing and any surfaces that may have been contaminated

  • CLEANING – Hand, foot & Mouth is easily destroyed with Soap & Water, using solution of ¼ bleach & water, as well as alcohol based cleaning solutions.

Teach children about cough & sneeze etiquette “Cover your mouth when you cough / Sneeze into your sleeve” Coughing / Sneezing into an elbow is better than coughing into your hands.

Dispose of used tissues in the bin straight away, then wash your hands afterwards with soap and water.

How is it diagnosed?

Your doctor can diagnose hand, foot and mouth disease based on the symptoms, laboratory tests are “not” usually necessary as this disease “should” resolve itself within 5-10 days.

How is it treated?

Usually NO treatment is needed other than wound care.” Pharmaceuticals “Children’s Grade” to help lower fever and discomfort is available and does help with discomfort. “Do NOT give children aspirin”

Allow blisters to dry out naturally. The blisters should not be deliberately burst because the fluid within them is infectious. “Wash the affected area with soap and water, let dry with no ointment overnight”.

Topical antibiotic ointment like “Polysporin” may be used during the day ease tightness of the wounds, and help remove hard crusts that may appear, however the wounds must dry out overnight. “No Band-Aids or covers should be used”

  • Make sure young children are drinking enough as painful mouth sores can make some children reluctant to swallow liquids.

What are the signs of a SERIOUS infection?

  • Sings that an infant or older child might have a more serious form of hand, foot and mouth disease include any of the following:
  • Persistent Fever “38C or above for 72 hours or more”
  • Abnormal movements / jerking movements
  • Rapid breathing
  • Excessive tiredness, drowsiness
  • Excessive irritability
  • Difficulty walking

If any of these signs are present then the child should be seen by a doctor urgently even if they have been checked earlier in the illness.

How long should children stay away from Childcare & School settings?

Children with hand, foot and mouth disease should be excluded from school or childcare facilities until “Their blisters have dried-up”, and “any” rash “if present” has gone and “any” fever has settled.

  • Often Hand, foot & mouth will run its course within 5-10 days, but may last up to 2 weeks with possibly contamination in the stool up to 2 months.

A child will only need to stay away from public places as long as the symptoms present themselves, if the child maintains good hygiene and hand washing and keeps their hands to themselves they may be in public places, “hand washing is the key”

What is the public health response?

As mentioned earlier, Hand, foot and mouth disease is not a modifiable disease under the Public Health Act. HOWEVER, to help prevent spread, “Parents / Guardians / Teachers / Day-Care workersshould report the illness to the director of the childcare center or the school principal so that affected students / parents are notified on the illness.

Further information

In Alberta Canada you can contact the “Health Link by phoning 811” at anytime to speak to a Dedicated Health Care Professional. They will help answer your questions and go through the illness signs and symptoms with you..

This information was taken From Center of Disease Control “CDC” (Hand, Foot & Mouth Disease) Information slip.

We never know what can happen, its always good to be prepared and have the knowledge we need to help those who need it.

“This material is for information purposes only and is taken from The Canadian Red Cross / Alberta Heart & Stroke Foundation & Alberta Health Services. This information should not be used in place of medical, Technical advice, instructor, and/or treatment. If you have questions, speak to your local Physician or Safety Training Facility.”

Just Remember:

Protect Yourself!!! Call 911!!! Don’t Waste Time!!!

Learn ACLS Advanced Cardiovascular Life Support & Save a Life Tomorrow with Saving Grace Medical Academy Ltd.

C-Diff “Clostridium Difficile”

C-Diff “Clostridium Difficile”

What is Clostridium difficile infection?

Clostridium difficile “pronounced Klo-Strid-ee-um dif-uh-seel”, also known as “C,diff” “See-dif”, is a germ that can cause diarrhea. Most cases of C.Diff infection occur in people taking antibiotics. The most common symptoms of C.Diff infection includes:

  • Watery Diarrhea
  • Fever
  • Loss of appetite
  • Nausea
  • Belly Pain and Tenderness

Who is most likely to get C.Diff infection?

The elderly, very young and people with certain medical problems have the greatest chance of getting C.Diff. C.Diff spores can live outside the human body for a very long time and may be found on things in the environment such as bed linens, bed rails, bathroom fixtures, and medical equipment. C.Diff infection can spread from person to person on contaminated equipment and on the hands of doctors, nurses, other healthcare providers and visitors.

Can C.Diff be fatal?

Yes, at the moment the CDC has calculated approximately a %6.0 mortality rate. Fatality due to C.Diff has been attributed to organ failure due to dehydration or complications with other current underlying medical conditions such as immune compromised or age.

Can C.Diff infection be treated?

Yes, there are antibiotics that can be used to treat C.Diff. In some severe cases, a person might have to have surgery to remove the infected part of the intestines. This surgery is needed in only 1 or 2 out of every 100 persons with C.Diff.

What are some of the things that Hospitals are doing ot prevent C.Diff infections?

To prevent C.Diff infections, Health Care Providers and General Public can:

Clean their hands with soap and water or an alcohol-based hand rub before and after caring for someone with C.Diff. This can prevent C.Diff and other germs from being passed from pone person to another on their hands.

Carefully clean rooms and equipment that have been used for someone with C.Diff

Use “Contact Precautions” to prevent C.Diff from spreading to other people

“Contact Precautions Mean”

Whenever possible, people with C.Diff with have a single room or share a room only with someone else who also has C.Diff

Wear gloves and wear a PPE gown over clothing while taking care of someone with C.Diff

Visitors may also wear PPE gowns and gloves to prevent spore spread.

When leaving the room, visitors must remove their PPE gown and gloves and wash their hands

In Hospital, Patience with C.Diff are asked to stay in their hospital rooms as much as possible. They should not go to common areas, such as gift shops, cafeterias, living rooms, common rooms.

Hospitals are advised to only give antibiotics when it is “necessary”

“Make sure all Health Care Professionals and those providing care clean their hands with soap and water or an alcohol-based hand rub “before” and after caring for you”

Tips

Only take antibiotics as prescribed by your doctor “follow the directions”

Be sure you clean your own hands often, especially after using the bathroom and before eating

Keep your bathroom clean and close the toilet lid before flushing to reduce the spread of spores given off by fecal matter.

Can my friends and family get C.Diff when they visit me?

Yes – C.Diff infection usually does not occur in people who are not taking antibiotics, however those with compromised immune systems, previous underlying medical conditions or infants are susceptible. Visitors are not likely to get C.Diff but can transport it to someone who may be susceptible. To make it safer for visitors, they should:

Clean their hands before they enter your room and as they leave your room.

Avoid using the ill persons bathroom and avoid contact with surfaces which may hold fecal matter.

Avoid contact with infants or those who could be ill already

If I have C.Diff what do I need to do when I go home from the Hospital?

Once you are back at home, you can return to your normal routine. Often, the diarrhea will be better or completely gone before you go home. This makes giving C.Diff to other people much less likely. However there are a few things you should do to lower the chances of developing C.Diff infection in yourself again or spreading it to others as C.Diff can survive up to 5 months outside of the host.

If you are given a prescription to treat C.Diff, take the medicine “exactly” as prescribed by your doctor and pharmacist. Do not take half-doses or stop before you run out. You may feel better but the bacteria is still in your body.

Was your hands often, especially after going to the bathroom and before preparing food.

People who live with you should wash their hands often as well as sleep in separate rooms “avoid sharing toiletry’s”

If you develop more diarrhea after you get home, tell your doctor immediately!

If your symptoms get worse at any time or you notice new symptoms from the list above, call your doctor or Health Link “811 in Alberta”. You can also call the “Health Link Alberta 24/7 if you have questions about C.Diff or any of the information in this handout.

This information was taken From Center of Disease Control “CDC” (Clostridium Difficile) Information slip.

We never know what can happen, its always good to be prepared and have the knowledge we need to help those who need it.

“This material is for information purposes only and is taken from The Canadian Red Cross / Alberta Heart & Stroke Foundation & Alberta Health Services. This information should not be used in place of medical, Technical advice, instructor, and/or treatment. If you have questions, speak to your local Physician or Safety Training Facility.”

Just Remember:

Protect Yourself!!! Call 911!!! Don’t Waste Time!!!

Learn Basic Life Support Provider CPR “BLS” Today & Save a Life Tomorrow with Saving Grace Medical Academy Ltd.

Concussion “Mild Traumatic Brain Injury” & your Child

Concussion “Mild Traumatic Brain Injury” & your Child

What is a Concussion/Mild Traumatic Brain Injury?

A concussion, also called a mild traumatic brain injury, is a head injury caused by the brain being shaken around inside the skull after a direct blow to the head, or a sudden jerking of the head or neck when the body is hit. Your child does not have to pass out “lose consciousness” to have a concussion. Some children will have symptoms of a concussion, such as passing out or forgetting what happened right before the injury, but others won’t.

Common Causes:

  • Falls
  • Sports injuries “Impact
  • Physical Assault “Shaken Baby Syndrome
  • Motor Vehicle Collision

When should my child go to the hospital?

There is more risk of complications such as bleeding and / or swelling in the brain in the first 24 to 48 hours after the injury. However, complications can happen even weeks later.

  • Call 911 or Go to the Hospital immediately if:
  • Becomes less alert, won’t wake up, or is hard to wake up
  • Doesn’t want to eat or nurse
  • Loses a learned skill “for example: Toilet Training”
  • Cry becomes high-pitched or the cry changes
  • Is acting differently
  • Is cranky or fussy
  • Blood or fluid coming from the nose or ears, or bruising around the eyes or ears
  • Has or acts like he or she has a headache
  • Speech is slurred or has trouble speaking
  • Loss of vision, blurry vision, or double vision
  • Sudden weakness on one side of the body
  • More than 2 episodes of uncontrollable or forceful vomiting that won’t stop
  • Seizure activity “such as abnormal movements, loss of consciousness, convulsions or gazing distantly off without being able to be stimulated or respond”

What to Expect After the Injury:

– The First 48 Hours – Make sure someone stays with your child for the first 24 hours after the concussion.

Rest & Sleep

Try to get your child to rest for the first 24 hours, it’s one of the best ways to help the brain heal. “It’s OK to let your child sleep

You “Do Not” have to wake up your child every 2 to 3 hours in the first 24 hours. If the doctor has asked that you “Do wake them” your child should wake up easily and not show any of the warning sings previously listed.

Limit “visual stimulus”, reading, television, video games, etc within the first 48 hours. The brain “needs to rest” so that it can heal, extra stimulus may make the symptoms worse. It may also be advisable for your child to take time off from school.

Keep your child away from bright lights, loud noises or crowds for the first 48 hours, as these can make symptoms worse as well.

Diet:

After a concussion, start your child on clear fluids such as “water, apple juice, ginger ale” and slowly go back to a normal diet. The fluids will help replenish needed sugar levels and help stimulate brain function, as vomiting is common in the first 24 hours fluids help keep your child hydrated and make vomiting easier.

Managing Pain:

To manage the pain “Headache”, you can help your child take “acetaminophen “such as Tylenol” for pain, use the proper dosage for the age / size of your child ‘Directions will be on the back of the bottle” Talk to your doctor about using products with ASA or NSAID’s in them “such as Aspirin, Ibuprofen, Advil or Motrin” these medications can increase the risk of bleeding.

  • – The First 4 Weeks – The symptoms below are common after a mild brain injury. They usually get better on their own within a few weeks and should not last longer than a month.

Feeling tired “abnormal to the casualty”

Problems falling or staying asleep

Feeling confused, poor concentration, or slow to answer questions

Feeling dizzy, poor balance, or poor coordination

Being sensitive to light

Being sensitive to sounds

Ringing in the ears

A mild headache, sometimes with nausea and/or vomiting

Being irritable, having mood swings, or feeling somewhat sad or “down”

While your Childs Brain is Healing

Most children recover from the concussion. The symptoms can take days to weeks to go away. Your child should start to feel better within a few days and be back to normal within about 4 weeks.

If your child isn’t feeling better within a few days after the injury “See your Doctor”

Expect your child to feel tired as he or she becomes more active. Make sure your child rests as needed.

If you find your child’s cranky or has mood swings, “see your Doctor if your worried”

Some children may find it hard to concentrate while their brain is healing, so make sure your child goes back to their normal activities slowly. Go back to school for half days at first, and increase as tolerated.

Ask your doctor when its okay for your child to play sports again. “The brain needs time to heal”

If your child plays sports, make sure the coach/instructor/team-mates know about your child’s concussion. “Avoid further head injuries”

  • “Use medicine as prescribed” See your doctor if your child still needs pain medicine for a headache longer than 2 weeks after the injury.

If your child’s Symptoms get worse at any time or you notice new symptoms from the list above, or from the first segment, call your doctor or Health Link “811 in Alberta”. You can also call the “Health Link Alberta 24/7 if you have questions about concussion/mild traumatic brain injury or any of the information in this handout.

This information was taken From Alberta Health Services “Concussion (Mild Traumatic Brain Injury) Information slip.

We never know what can happen, its always good to be prepared and have the knowledge we need to help those who need it.

“This material is for information purposes only and is taken from The Canadian Red Cross / Alberta Heart & Stroke Foundation & Alberta Health Services. This information should not be used in place of medical, Technical advice, instructor, and/or treatment. If you have questions, speak to your local Physician or Safety Training Facility.”

Just Remember:

Protect Yourself!!! Call 911!!! Don’t Waste Time!!!

Learn Standard First Aid + Basic Life Support Today & Save a Life Tomorrow with Saving Grace Medical Academy Ltd.

Whooping Cough “Pertussis”

Whooping Cough “Pertussis”

Whooping cough can be a life threatening infection that affects Babies, toddlers and young children adversely. In babies whooping cough can lead to a life threatening symptom known as “Apnea” causing pauses in normal breathing, pneumonia, feeding problems, weight loss, seizures, brain damage and in some cases “Death“. Older children and adults can catch Whooping Cough and pass it on to babies and young children as carriers, continuing the spread.

Who is at risk? Anyone can get whooping cough unfortunately, people living in the same household with someone who has contracted whooping cough are especially at risk. Immunization “does” reduce the risk of infection, but immunity does fade over time and boosters should be utilized to hep prevent the spread.

Symptoms:

  • – Much like a cold Whooping Cough usually begins with a blocked or runny nose, tiredness, mild fever and a cough.
  • – As symptoms progress the cough worsens and leads to severe bouts of uncontrollable coughing. These coughing bouts may be followed by vomiting, choking or taking big gasping breaths which causes a “whooping” sound. This cough can last for many weeks and can be worse at night.
  • – Some Newborns may not cough at all but they can stop breathing and turn blue. Some babies may even have difficulties feeding and can choke or gag easily.
  • – Older children and adults may just have a cough that lasts for many weeks. They may also not have the “whoop” sound when they cough but are still able to pass on Whooping Cough.

How is it Spread?

Whooping cough is spread when an infectious person coughs bacteria / virus into the air, that same air or particulates are inhaled by people nearby. If they are not treated early, people who are infected with whooping cough are “very” infectious in the “first three weeks” of their illness. Whooping cough also spreads easily through families, childcare centers, schools and shopping centers.

Prevention:

Whooping cough vaccines are “proven” to provide a good protection from infection, however immune responses from a vaccine do fade with time, which means that boosters are needed.

  • – Wash your hands
  • – If your ill, prevent the spread by staying at home and avoiding group gatherings where you can spread the disease by accident.

Vaccines:

-Vaccines “DO NOT” cause Autism. Autism is not a disease.

-Vaccines “DO NOT” have mercury in them. Mercury is not a preservative.

Diagnosis & Treatments

“Always consult a medical professional before treating illness on your own, home made remedies may not have the desired effect and may make the illness-symptoms worse”

– If you have been in contact with someone with whooping cough early in their illness “first 3 weeks” they are infectious and you may have been exposed. Watch for symptoms and see your doctor if a new cough begins. Some babies and some pregnant women need antibiotics to prevent whooping cough infection if they have had significant contact “family member” with an infectious person.

“In Alberta Canada you can contact “811” to contact the Alberta Health Link, a Registered Nurse or Paramedic will help you with treatments and options, they may also refer to you to bring the child into a Hospital for treatment.”

We never know what can happen, its always good to be prepared and have the knowledge we need to help those who need it.

“This material is for information purposes only and is taken from The Canadian Red Cross / Alberta Heart & Stroke Foundation & Alberta Health Services. This information should not be used in place of medical, Technical advice, instructor, and/or treatment. If you have questions, speak to your local Physician or Safety Training Facility.”

Just Remember:

Protect Yourself!!! Call 911!!! Don’t Waste Time!!!

Learn Basic Life Support “BLS” Today & Save a Life Tomorrow with Saving Grace Medical Academy Ltd.

ACLS “AKA” Advanced Cardiovascular Life Support for HCP’s

ACLS “AKA” Advanced Cardiovascular Life Support for HCP’s

One of the new programs now being offered at Saving Grace Medical Academy is the ACLS Advanced Cardiovascular Life Support course taught through the Alberta Heart & Stroke Foundation. One of the highest level’s of resuscitation available, ACLS Advanced Cardiovascular Life Support focuses on the systematic approach on high quality advanced emergency medical techniques. This program has been selected by Alberta Health Services as the standard for all “Advanced” medical professionals entering the emergency medical field.

This course offers a video-based and instructor led advanced course that expands on the Basic Life Support or “BLS” cpr skills for health care providers. Stressing the importance of continuous, high quality CPR, ACLS takes the Basic Life Support Training to the next level and brings out the importance of medical intervention during cardiopulmonary arrest along with immediate post cardiac arrest, dysrhythmia, coronary syndromes as well as stroke’s.

Alberta Heart & Stroke Foundation’s ACLS course presents:

  • -Improved resuscitation science leading to a better patient outcome
  • -Simulations and scenarios based on realism
  • -Instructor’s with experience that can help adapt the program to local protocol’s.

Who can take this class?

– ACLS Advanced Cardiovascular Life Support is designed for advanced health care professionals who either direct or participate in management of cardiopulmonary arrest and other cardiovascular emergencies.

– EMS Emergency Medical Service Professionals, EMT’s / Paramedics.

– Emergency Medicine Professionals – Nurses / RN’s / LPN’s / Respiratory Therapists RT’s

– Intensive Care specialists – Doctor’s

– Critical Care Units

– Any employment that requires an “Advanced Medical Directives” such as physicians, nurses or paramedics.

“The Heart & Stroke Foundation recommends that only those who will use the skills of ACLS within their scope of practice take the ACLS course. All students who meet the prerequisites and successfully pass the ACLS course will receive a course completion card attached to your “HSF ID number”.

Course Content:

Recent scientific evidence has pointed a direction towards better content, while educational research has been led to improve design of the ACLS Advanced Cardiovascular Life Support Provider course. The ACLS course emphasizes 3 major concepts.

1) Crucial importance of High Quality CPR cardiopulmonary Resucitation

2) Integration of BLS Basic Life Support with ACLS interventions

3) Team Interaction and communication during resuscitation.

Students will practice the application of many skills in simulated cases and will practice both Team Leader and team member roles while practicing:

  • – High Quality BLS Basic Life Support CPR for HCP’s
  • – Airway management
  • – Systematic approach to scenario management
  • – Rhythm recognition “ECG”
  • – Defibrillation “AED Manual & Automatic”
  • – IV intravenous / IO intraosseous techniques
  • – Medication assist or admin
  • – Cardioversion
  • – Team Dynamics
  • – Trans cutaneous Pacing

Course Duration:

-New Students – 12 Hours (+-) 20 Minutes broken up into a 2 day 6 hour each program.

-Renewing Students – 6 Hours (+-) 35 minutes – Completed in a 1 day program.

“To qualify for a renewal you must complete the renewal program BEFORE your certificate expires” ACLS certification lasts for 2 years.

Here at Saving Grace Medical we hope that all this information helps you achieve a higher level of education and get the course you need when you need it. We look forward to hearing from you and helping you achieve the career you desire.

We never know what can happen, its always good to be prepared and have the knowledge we need to help those who need it.

“This material is for information purposes only and is taken from The Canadian Red Cross / Alberta Heart & Stroke Foundation & Alberta Health Services. This information should not be used in place of medical, Technical advice, instructor, and/or treatment. If you have questions, speak to your local Physician or Safety Training Facility.”

Just Remember:

Protect Yourself!!! Call 911!!! Don’t Waste Time!!!

Learn ACLS Today & Save a Life Tomorrow with Saving Grace Medical Academy Ltd.