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CPR “Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation “Infant / Baby”

CPR “Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation “Infant / Baby”

How to Perform CPR “Part 3 of 3”

“CPR on an Infant is Perfectly Safe! You will NOT hurt your infant, Not doing CPR may lead to the death of the Infant”

In our last post we focused on the basic information you would need to know about CPR and how its performed. For this Post we will focus giving you the “Step by Step CPR Guide”. This guideline is for the “General Public” for the Health Care Provider we will have a post later on dedicated to the new standards set by ILCOR, The Heart & Stroke Foundation, and the Basic Life Support CPR-C for HCP’s Health Care Providers guidelines.

Common Questions

  • Can CPR hurt my baby? – Answer = NO, CPR is perfectly safe, you will not hurt your child, Not doing CPR may lead to the death of the infant however.
  • Can I break ribs by doing CPR? – Answer = In an Infant it is “Rare” that you would break ribs, remember they are still developing and their bones are still somewhat pliable, be sure to push Hard and Fast to a depth of 1/3rd the depth of the chest and don’t stop until help arrives!
  • How much air should I give them? – Answer = While giving a breath by either “Mouth to Mouth or by using a pocket mask” remember to Head tilt Chin lift to a neutral position of the head that makes the infant look like they are “sniffing“, seal up your lips over both the nose and mouth and give a breath “just enough” to see a baby size chest rise. Stop when you feel resistance as the volume needed for an infants lungs is about the volume within your own mouth, also if you feel resistance check the mouth to see if there are obstructions, you may discover “why” your infant has stopped breathing, if you can see the object “Carefully remove itNEVER perform a blind finger sweep, you may push the object deeper and make the situation worse.

Emergency Procedures

In any Emergency remember to:

  1. 1) Protect yourself Make sure its safe before helping
  2. 2) Call 911Get your Paramedic Partners going
  3. 3) Don’t Waste TimeEach second without oxygen can cause brain damage, don’t waste it wondering what to do, just help

If the Baby / Infant is “Not breathing” and has gone unconscious for any reason “START CPR, Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation”

CPR “Infant / Baby”

  1. 1) Start CPR by:
  • – Place one hand on the forehead to maintain an open airway with a slight head tilt chin lift “like the baby is sniffing”
  • -Place 2 fingers on the middle of the chest just below the nipples.
  • – Push Hard / Push Fast “DO 30 Compression’s in a row at a rough depth of 4cm’s or 1 1/2 inch allowing the chest to recoil or raise up to the top after each compression.

2) Give two Breaths by:

  • – If you have a pocket mask “Use it now” or:
  • – Open the airway by using the “Head-tilt / Chin lift technique
  • – Seal your lips tightly over the baby’s “Mouth & Nose
  • – Give two “baby size” breaths, taking about 1 second per breath with just enough volume to make the chest rise up.

3) If your breaths go in:

  • – Repeat the cycle of 30 chest compression’s and 2 breaths
  • If your breaths do NOT go in: Repeat the cycle of 30 chest compression’s and before giving the next 2 breaths look into the mouth for obstructions. “Choking in infants is very common” remove the object if you see it then continue with 30 compression’s & 2 Breaths.

4) Continue CPR until:

  • – The scene is no longer safe to be in
  • – More advanced care arrives.
  • – An A.E.D arrives and has told you to stop.
  • – You have become physically unable to continue.
  • – The victim starts to breath normally on their own.

We never know what can happen, its always good to be prepared and have the knowledge we need to help those who need it.

“This material is for information purposes only and is taken from The Canadian Red Cross / Alberta Heart & Stroke Foundation & Alberta Health Services. This information should not be used in place of medical, Technical advice, instructor, and/or treatment. If you have questions, speak to your local Physician or Safety Training Facility.”

Just Remember:

Protect Yourself!!! Call 911!!! Don’t Waste Time!!!

Learn First Aid Today & Save a Life Tomorrow with Saving Grace Medical Academy Ltd.

ACLS “AKA” Advanced Cardiovascular Life Support for HCP’s

ACLS “AKA” Advanced Cardiovascular Life Support for HCP’s

One of the new programs now being offered at Saving Grace Medical Academy is the ACLS Advanced Cardiovascular Life Support course taught through the Alberta Heart & Stroke Foundation. One of the highest level’s of resuscitation available, ACLS Advanced Cardiovascular Life Support focuses on the systematic approach on high quality advanced emergency medical techniques. This program has been selected by Alberta Health Services as the standard for all “Advanced” medical professionals entering the emergency medical field.

This course offers a video-based and instructor led advanced course that expands on the Basic Life Support or “BLS” CPR skills for health care providers. Stressing the importance of continuous, high quality CPR, ACLS takes the Basic Life Support Training to the next level and brings out the importance of medical intervention during cardiopulmonary arrest along with immediate post cardiac arrest, dysrhythmia, coronary syndromes as well as stroke’s.

Who can take this class?

– ACLS Advanced Cardiovascular Life Support is designed for advanced health care professionals who either direct or participate in management of cardiopulmonary arrest and other respiratory or cardiovascular emergencies.

-RN or higher

-Paramedic

-Physician

-RT – Respiratory Therapist

We are open for New Students looking to enter into the emergency rooms and learn this dedicated life saving course, or even those that are veterans of the emergency room looking to Re-certify their ACLS.

Short on time? Your certificate has expired? Ask us about getting your time in class reduced to only 1 day by blending your ACLS program.

We look forward to seeing you!

#ACLS, #AdvancedCardiovascularLifeSupport #HeartAndStrokeFoundation

Basic Life Support Provider CPR&AED “HCP” Heart & Stroke Foundation VS Covid-19

Welcome, we want to help, many students have asked us “Are you training in class? Is your school affected by the restrictions?”, Covid-19 has definitely changed many things in our world. Life as we knew it has literally been turned upside down for so many. Daycares were closed, Schools were closed, all major sporting events were cancelled. This impacted many things including your Pre-Requisite courses for Health Care Professionals, like the Standard First Aid or Basic Life Support Provider CPR class through the Heart & Stroke Foundation.

-GOOD NEWS-

We’re Still Open and Better than ever!

Saving Grace Medical Academy has been a long time supporter of education, to continue our goals of higher education we have moved into the “Fulton Place School” in support of Edmonton Public School Board. What better way to support education and our future than by supporting our very own local Edmonton Public School Board.

New Location

Fulton Place Edmonton Public School

10310 – 56 St NW, Edmonton, Ab, Ca

Classroom #2

Covid-19 had us closed for a few months at a time with each lock down, but it didn’t keep us down. We have new courses to help you get the education you need and certificates when you need them. If you are a #NursingStudent, #MedicalStudent ,#MedicalProfessional or any #HealthCareProfessional that is required to maintain Basic Life Support Provider CPR “BLS”, Advanced Cardiovascular Life Support “ACLS” or even Standard First Aid certificates for the Work Force, we have you covered.

As we continue to support education and our future health care professionals our primary in class training focus has been to provide Standard First Aid + BLS Provider training for the next level of future Nursing Students. This course is required for all students going into EMR, EMT, Nursing, and for practicum training with a current deadline of the end of August for your first semester.

While it may seem that training is scarce for BLS Provider, ACLS Provider, or Red Cross Standard First Aid we have not forgotten about you! Our class sizes are limited to ensure the safety of all in attendance and with this in mind we have the alternative online training methods (BLS Interim, ACLS Interim, and Red Cross Blended – Online Portion): any one of these classes will allow you to work (Occupational Health & Safety Approved) for 90 days as we work to get you in class, while doing our part to slow the spread of Covid-19.

In Class Training is still a GO!

We are now offering in class training for:

Heart & Stroke Foundation

  • Basic Life Support Provider CPR
  • Standard First Aid + Basic Life Support Provider

Canadian Red Cross

  • Standard First Aid CPR-C & AED “Blended 1 Day In Class Course”

Covid-19 Friendly Courses “Online Training”

To keep our students safe and continue to provide them the highest quality of training even during a pandemic, we are continuing to maintain our “Online Training Courses” so that if another lock down were to occur, our students can relax in safety from home and still receive the education they need!

Heart & Stroke Foundation

  • Basic Life Support Provider “Interim Online Class”
  • Advanced Cardiovascular Life Support “Interim Online Course”

Canadian Red Cross

  • Standard First Aid CPR-C & AED “Online”

The Pandemic VS Education

Many schools have been adversely affected by the Covid-19 Pandemic, with new social distancing guidelines, cleaning guidelines, isolation guidelines and lack of supplies to maintain proper sterilization equipment we understood why so many businesses, functions, social gatherings and schools had closed.

We support Edmonton Public Schools

We have new procedures, new courses, a new classroom and all the Covid-19 Pandemic supplies to maintain a cheerful, fun, educational and safe environment for Students of all ages

For more details on the courses we have to help you get back on track, please visit us at

SAVING GRACE MEDICAL ACADEMY

Getting you the courses you need, when you need them!

Deadly Bleeding & How to Stop it

Deadly Bleeding & How to Stop it

Deadly Bleeding or Severe bleeding that ends with large amounts of Blood being lost has the potential to end a victims life very quickly. Either “Internal” or “External” bleeding depending on the volume of Blood being lost can become life threatening and must be controlled as soon as possible. Many of our students have asked great questions including, how much blood can you lose before its too much? How much Blood do we have? Whats the difference between internal and external bleeding? How can I tell if its an Arterial bleed or venous? Are there any tricks I can do to help stop the bleeding? Should I use a tourniquet?

On “average” many people have about 5 to 6 liters of blood within their body, of course size, gender, age and athleticism play factors on this volume as we are all unique. The “average” blood loss that many people can sustain is about 2 cups / 500 ml or 1/2 liter, this volume is much less than many people are aware of and indeed has the potential to become life threatening. So whats the best way to stop the bleeding? As we are not able to do very much for Internal bleeding “Bleeding trapped under the skin” other than seeking medical attention right away, lets focus on external bleeding.

EXTERNAL BLEEDING “Blood is coming out of their body

There are 2 types of external bleeding, Arterial & Venous, the best way to describe them is not to focus on the Blood itself but the volume that is being lost. Arterial bleeds or “From the Artery” will have a “HIGH” volume and may spray, Venous or “From the Vein” will have a “LOW” volume and will steadily bleed out.

The 3 P’s to STOP External Bleeding

1) Pressure… 2) Pressure….. 3) Pressure………

Of course each of these moderate pressures are different and have a different skill that we as rescuers can use to help “Slow the Blood-flow” so that it can stop itself. “Never use a tourniquet” or hard pressure as tourniquet’s STOP blood-flow and any body part deprived of blood & oxygen will eventually die. This can lead to severe complications when the victim arrives at the hospital to receive further medical care. As first response rescuers lets focus on how to “Slow the Blood-flow” so your own body can stop the bleeding itself, this skill will be invaluable for anyone who has external bleeding from either an artery or vein.

The 3 P’s to STOP External Bleeding Stand For

  1. 1) Direct Pressure
  2. 2) Pressure Bandages
  3. 3) Pressure Points

What to Do:

  1. 1) Make sure its safe for you to help the victim before you approach them. If safe to do so check the victim.
  2. 2) If the bleeding looks high in volume or you are not comfortable with care call 911 for further medical aid.
  3. 3) With the wound in view, expose the wound “rinse with cool clean water if needed”
  4. 4) Apply direct pressure with a bandage to the wound “Slow the Blood-Flow” If bleeding persists always add more bandages never take away blood soaked bandages as your wound is beginning to clot.
  5. 5) Apply a Pressure Bandage, to secure a direct pressure bandage use either roller gauze or a triangular bandages to secure your direct pressure bandages in place with a “Moderate pressure” always make sure that circulation is maintained distally or “after the wound”, to do this try pressing on the skin past the wound, if the blood flow is normal the skin will blanch then return to its original color quickly.
  6. 6) For persistent bleeding and Arterial bleeds add the use of pressure points, to do this use an object like a roll of gauze or bandages and place them in the Joint “Arm Pit, Groin, elbow” above the wound then have the victim bend the joint pressing the object in. This will create a pressure on the veins and arteries above to the wound thus slowing the blood flow even more. The addition of Cool packs and elevation may further increase your ability to slow the blood-flow and achiever our goal of having the bleeding stopped.
  7. 7) Combined the 3 Pressures, Direct Pressure, Pressure Bandage & Pressure Points have been shown to greatly increase survival rate of victims experiencing blood loss. Just remember to continue care and seek medical aid for any bleeding that has the potential to be severe.

We never know what can happen, its always good to be prepared and have the knowledge we need to help those who need it.

“This material is for information purposes only and is taken from The Canadian Red Cross / Alberta Heart & Stroke Foundation & Alberta Health Services. This information should not be used in place of medical, Technical advice, instructor, and/or treatment. If you have questions, speak to your local Physician or Safety Training Facility.”

Just Remember:

Protect Yourself!!! Call 911!!! Don’t Waste Time!!!

Learn First Aid Today & Save a Life Tomorrow with Saving Grace Medical Academy Ltd.

What to do while you wait for an Ambulance

What to do while you wait for an Ambulance

After rescuing a victim there are many things that can be flowing through your mind. Did I do this right? Was my First Aid technique proper? Is there anything else I can do to help the victim? These questions are normal and there are even more that will pop in during an emergency.

Normally an Ambulance within an Urban setting can take anywhere from 5 too 25 minutes to respond, in Rural area’s response time can vary from 15 to 40 minutes an in most cases where distance is past 30 to 45 minutes a helicopter service may be deployed to meet you somewhere. In essence this means after you’ve rescued the victim you may have a little time to make sure that your First Aid techniques have helped.

We call this skill while your waiting a “Secondary Survey”, its your second chance to find something you might have missed during your primary survey. The Secondary Survey can be performed quite easily in two simple fashions, Hands On or Hands Off. What we mean by this is you can pat the person down from head to toe looking for injuries you might have missed “Hands On”, or “Hands Off” and ask the victim to tell you what’s going on.

Both techniques are easily performed but have their uses, the Hands on Check is normally performed for victims rendered unconscious due to the emergency they experienced, and the Hands Off check likewise is performed for victims still conscious enough to walk you through the emergency by asking them the SAMPLE history questions.

What to Do while waiting for an emergency?

1) Care for the cause of the Emergency

2) Have the victim rest in a position of comfort or the Recovery Position

3) Keep the victim warm

4) Ensure the victim is breathing and has an open airway

5) Offer comfort, warmth and reassurance

6) Double check “Hands on / Hands Off” SAMPLE Questions

-S – Signs & Symptoms -Whats wrong?

-A – Allergies – Do you have any?

-M – Medications – Are you on any?

-P – Past Medical History – Has this happened before?

-L -Last Meal – When / What did you eat?

-E – Event – Do you remember everything?

We never know what can happen, its always good to be prepared and have the knowledge we need to help those who need it.

“This material is for information purposes only and is taken from The Canadian Red Cross / Alberta Heart & Stroke Foundation & Alberta Health Services. This information should not be used in place of medical, Technical advice, instructor, and/or treatment. If you have questions, speak to your local Physician or Safety Training Facility.”

Just Remember:

Protect Yourself!!! Call 911!!! Don’t Waste Time!!!

Learn First Aid Today & Save a Life Tomorrow with Saving Grace Medical Academy Ltd.

Should you move a casualty before providing care?

Should you move a casualty before providing care?

Moving a casualty before you provide care has been a question that almost every class brings up. Its a great question with a simple answer There are some reason’s when moving a person may be the only option to save their life or even prevent them from further injury. You may want to move a casualty if there are dangerous environments which could also do further harm to the patient, dangerous animals, toxins / poisons, or even machinery. One thing to remember “before” you move a casualty is “Will this make things better or worse?” You “do” have to weigh the situation vs desirable outcome, often the phrase used is “Life over Limb”. If the Casualties life is in immediate threat due to their surroundings “Move them away from the danger”, however, if moving them makes the situation worse and their surroundings are “not” an issue “Keep them in the position found or in a position of comfort.

“REMEMBER” You may not have to move a patient, if their “Spine” is in danger always refer to your 911 dispatcher for further advice before attempting First Aid techniques.

How to move a Patient from a dangerous environment:

-Collar Drag – At the head of the patient – Roll the person’s clothing “Collar” behind their neck in a ball in your hand bunching their clothing under the armpits, bend with your knees and lift with your legs, drag the victim to safety.

-One Arm Drag – Kneeling at the head of the victim slide the persons torso into your lap, lay one of the victims arms across their chest and reach through their opposite arm pit to grip their folded arms wrist, slip your other hand under the other arm pit and grip the folded arms forearm, bend with your knees, lift with your legs and drag to safety.

-2 Person Collar Drag – Combine the one arm drag technique with adding a partner, each rescuer should grab the collar on opposite sides of the victim and facing in the direction you wish to go bend with your knees and lift with your legs dragging them to safety.

-2 Person Carry – Combine the “one arm drag” technique to lift the victim’s torso and add a partner to lift the legs by folding them across each other gripping by the lower leg under the calf, face in the direction you wish to go, bend with your knees, lift with your legs and carry the victim to safety.

Learn First Aid Today, Save a Life Tomorrow with Saving Grace Medial Academy Ltd

Above all else remember to Protect Yourself!!! Call 911!!! Don’t Wast Time!!!

Basic Life Support Provider CPR & AED in Edmonton

Welcome, we want to help, many students have asked us “Are you training in class yet?”, Covid-19 has definitely changed many things in our world. Life as we knew it has literally been turned upside down for so many. Daycares were closed, Schools were closed, all major sporting events were cancelled. This impacted many things including your Pre-Requisite courses for Health Care Professionals, like the Basic Life Support Provider CPR class through the Heart & Stroke Foundation.

-GOOD NEWS-

We’re BACK and Better than ever!

Saving Grace Medical Academy has been a long time supporter of education, to continue our goals of higher education we have moved into the “Fulton Place School” in support of Edmonton Public School Board. What better way to support education and our future than by supporting our very own local Edmonton Public School Board.

New Location

Fulton Place Edmonton Public School

10310 – 56 St NW, Edmonton, Ab, Ca

Classroom #2

Covid-19 had us closed for a few months, but it didn’t keep us down. We have new courses to help you get the education you need and certificates when you need them. If you are a #NursingStudent, #MedicalStudent ,#MedicalProfessional or any #HealthCareProfessional that is required to maintain Basic Life Support Provider CPR “BLS”, Advanced Cardiovascular Life Support “ACLS” or even Standard First Aid certificates for the Work Force, we have you covered.

As we continue to support education and our future health care professionals our primary in class training focus for July has been to provide Standard First Aid + BLS Provider training. This course is required for all students going into EMR, EMT, Nursing, and for practicum training with a current deadline of the beginning of August. While it may seem that training is scarce for BLS Provider, ACLS Provider, or Red Cross Standard First Aid we have not forgotten about you! Our class sizes are limited during Phase 2 and with this in mind we have the alternative online training methods (BLS Interim, ACLS Interim, and Red Cross Blended – Online Portion): any one of these classes will allow you to work (Occupational Health & Safety Approved) for 90 days as we work to get you in class.

In Class Training has Resumed!

We are now offering in class training for:

Heart & Stroke Foundation

  • Basic Life Support Provider CPR
  • Standard First Aid + Basic Life Support Provider

Canadian Red Cross

  • Standard First Aid CPR-C & AED “Blended 1 Day In Class Course”

Covid-19 Friendly Courses “Online Training”

To keep our students safe and continue to provide them the highest quality of training even during a pandemic, we are continuing to maintain our “Online Training Courses” so that if another lock down were to occur, our students can relax in safety from home and still receive the education they need!

Heart & Stroke Foundation

  • Basic Life Support Provider “Interim Online Class”
  • Advanced Cardiovascular Life Support “Interim Online Course”

Canadian Red Cross

  • Standard First Aid CPR-C & AED “Online”

The Pandemic VS Education

Many schools have been adversely affected by the Covid-19 Pandemic, with new social distancing guidelines, cleaning guidelines, isolation guidelines and lack of supplies to maintain proper sterilization equipment we understood why so many businesses, functions, social gatherings and schools had closed.

We support Edmonton Public Schools

We have new procedures, new courses, a new classroom and all the Covid-19 Pandemic supplies to maintain a cheerful, fun, educational and safe environment for Students of all ages

For more details on the courses we have to help you get back on track, please visit us at

SAVING GRACE MEDICAL ACADEMY

Getting you the courses you need, when you need them!

LEAD Poisoning

LEAD Poisoning

What is Lead Poisoning?

Although many countries have initiated programs to lower the level of “Lead” in the environment, human exposure to lead remains of concerns to health care providers and public health officials worldwide. Several methods are used to detect elevated blood lead levels. The presence of changes in blood cells visible under a microscope or deletion of dense lines in the bones of children can be seen on X-Ray’s are some of the signs of Lead poisoning.

Lead Poisoning” is a medical condition that occurs when people are exposed to lead compounds through inhalation, swallowing, and rarely, through the skin. Lead is a colorless, tasteless, and odorless metal that may be found in dirt, dust, toys, dishes, and furniture. Lead poisoning usually occurs from repeated exposure to small amounts of lead.

What causes Lead Poisoning?

Until the 1970’s, lead was commonly added to gasoline and house paint in North America. It remains in our environment within: older house paint, ammunition, fishing gear, weights, plumbing pipes and faucets. Lead can contaminate drinking water when lead solder is used to connect a homes plumbing system. Lead is also found in pewter pitchers, dinnerware, toys, storage batteries, and hobbies involving soldering such as stained glass, jewellery making, pottery glazing, paint sets and art supplies and miniature lead figures.

How does lead damage the body?

Lead mimics biologically helpful minerals such as calcium, iron, and zinc. Most lead settles in the bone, interfering with the production of red blood cells “leading to anemia”. It also interferes with the absorption of calcium, which is required for strong bones, muscles, healthy muscle contraction, and blood vessel function.

  • Children under the age of six, especially unborn babies, are most susceptible to lead poisoning because their brains and central nervous systems are still developing.

Childhood lead poisoning can cause:

  • Reduced IQ
  • Learning disabilities
  • Attention Deficit Disorders
  • Behavioral Problems
  • Stunted Growth
  • Hearing Problems
  • Anemia
  • Kidney Damage
  • Stomach Pain
  • Mental Disabilities or retardation
  • Seizures
  • Coma
  • Death

Adult Lead Poisoning:

Exposure in adults has a multitude of symptoms and often starts with abdominal pain and cramping, this may be followed by vomiting, staggering gait, muscle weakness, seizures or coma.

  • High Blood Pressure
  • Fertility Problems
  • Nerve Disorders
  • Muscle and Joint Pain
  • Irritability
  • Memory or Concentration Problems
  • Aggressive Behavior
  • Decreased Appetite
  • Low Energy
  • Difficulty Sleeping
  • Headaches
  • Reduced Sensations
  • Constipation

Can Lead Poisoning Be Prevented?

Yes – Lead Poising is “Entirely” Preventable

How do you know if you have Lead poisoning?

A simple blood test is the screening test for lead poising. The current “level of concert” set by the U.S Center of Disease Prevention and Control is 10 micro-grams per deciliter, though recent studies indicate that there is “no safe level” of lead in the blood. Preventing lead poisoning before it occurs is “Paramount”

Treatment

Treatment depends on how much lead is in the blood. In cases of mild lead poisoning, the source is identified, then removed or minimized. Appropriate nutrition is advised. In cases of severe lead poisoning, with blood lead levels equal to or above 45 micro-grams per deciliter, children are admitted for “chelation therapy“, which are medications that bind to and remove lead from the body.

Emergency medical care is “required” in severe cases of lead poisoning,. Contact your physician for more information on treatments and ways lead poisoning can be managed.

If your symptoms get worse at any time or you notice new symptoms from the list above, call your doctor or Health Link “811 in Alberta”. You can also call the “Health Link Alberta 24/7 if you have questions about C.Diff or any of the information in this handout.

This information was taken From Center of Disease Control “CDC” (Lead Poisoning Guide) Information slip, Delaware Health & Social services Public Health Division, W.H.O World Health Organization. Center of Disease Control Canada

“This material is for information purposes only. It should not be used in place of medical advice, instruction, and/or treatment. If you have questions, speak to your doctor or appropriate healthcare provider.”

In any emergency just remember to Protect Yourself!!! Call 911!!! Don’t Waste Time!!!

Learn First Aid Today, Save a Life Tomorrow, let first aid training in Edmonton be your Saving Grace

What is Impetigo?

What is Impetigo?

Impetigo is a bacterial skin infection often found on the face, bottom and hands caused by “streptococcus and Staphylococcus aureus AKA: staph” bacteria. It is commonly known as “school sores” because a majority of cases are in school-aged children. However, it can also affect infants, adults and adolescents.

Uncomplicated Impetigo does “not” cause permanent damage to the skin, but is “HIGHLY contagious.

What does it look like?

“Impetigo can easily be misdiagnosed on first glance as Hand Foot & Mouth or even Herpes”.

Impetigo occurs in two forms, blistering and crusted. In Blistering Impetigo the blisters arise on previously normal skin, and “rapidly” grow in size and number. The blisters quickly burst and leave slightly moist or glazed areas with a brown/yellow crust at the edge. The spots expand even after they break open and can be many centimetres wide. They sometimes clear in the centre to produce ring shaped patterns. They are “not” usually painful, but can be itchy.

Impetigo usually appears around the nose, mouth, and other parts of the face. It can also appear on any skin not covered by clothes, such as arms and legs. Impetigo may even appear on the groin or buttocks.

  • In severe cases of impetigo there may be swelling of the lymph glands in the face or neck, severe pain, worsening redness, weakness and fever. “Consult your physician immediately”

Crusted Impetigo has a thick soft yellow crust. Beneath this crust is a moist red area. Crusted Impetigo spots grow slowly and are always smaller than the fully developed spots of blistering Impetigo. They are “not” usually painful, but can be itchy.

Impetigo can occur on top of other skin conditions, particularly itchy ones. When the skin is scratched the infection can enter through the broke skin. Some of these conditions are atopic dermatitis “eczema”, scabies, insect bites and head lice.

In cases where a larger area of skin is affected, patience may also have a fever, swollen lymph nodes or feel generally unwell.

How is it diagnosed?

Your doctor may diagnose impetigo based on a visual inspection of the blisters/sores, or by taking a swab to test for bacteria and check which antibiotic to use. The result of the swab takes several days.

How is it treated?

Depending on how bad the infection is, your doctor may recommend the use of an antibiotic ointment or oral antibiotics in severe cases. Antibiotic ointment should be continued until the sores have completely healed. If oral antibiotics are given it is important to finish the whole course of treatment “usually 5 days” and not stop when the impetigo starts to clear. “The blemishes may vanish but the bacteria may remain”.

Sores should be cleaned every 8-12 hours “Soap and Water”, dried thoroughly and covered with a waterproof dressing. Bathing the blisters with salty water will help to dry them out “use saline solution or dissolve about half a teaspoon of salt in a cup of water”.

How is it Spread?

Impetigo is very easy to catch from other people! Impetigo is usually spread through direct contact with other infected people.

The Bacteria primarily enters through damaged skin. People with conditions causing long term damage to their skin, such as eczema or atopic dermatitis, are at greater risk of infection.

How can you avoid spreading the infection?

“While you have the infection”:

  • Sores should be kept clean and covered with a waterproof dressing to prevent them being touched or scratched.
  • Used dressings should be placed in a sealed bag and put in the garbage bin as soon as they are removed.
  • Hands should be washed thoroughly with soap and running water for 10-15 seconds after sores are touched or redressed.

Children with impetigo should be kept home from school or other group settings if their wounds cannot be kept covered until 24 hours after antibiotic treatment has been started, or until the blisters have dried out if antibiotics are not used.

Bedding “Pillow Cases” should be changed and washed each day.

To Prevent Impetigo children should be taught:

  • To wash their hands often with soap.
  • Not to scratch scabs or pick their nose.
  • Not to share their clothes, towels, pillowcases, or toothbrushes
  • To have scratches and cuts cleaned and covered

Parents should be careful not to allow items such as clothes, towels, bed sheets, razors or toothbrushes used by the affected person to be used by others. Other grooming items, such as nail scissors or tweezers, should be disinfected / washed thoroughly after each use.

School and Childcare Impetigo Prevention.

In addition to general hygiene measures, specific measures to prevent spread in schools and childcare include”

  • Teachers, children and families should understand the importance of hand washing, covering sores and staying home if sick.

Hand washing products “soap dispensers, running water and paper towels” should be available and accessible.

Activities should allow time for hand washing as part of routine practice “before eating and after going to the toilet”

Temporary exclusion from child care or school if their wounds cannot be kept covered until 24 hours after antibiotic treatment as been started, or until the blisters have dried out if antibiotics are not used.

Surfaces such as counters, desks and toys that come in contact with uncovered or poorly covered infections, should be cleaned daily with detergent, and whenever visibly contaminated.

Impetigo “is” dangerous for babies!

It is important for people with Impetigo to keep away from newborns and young babies. Newborn babies are particularly susceptible to impetigo and because their immune systems are not fully developed. This can lead to serious complications, if you suspect your newborn has Impetigo see your physician immediately.

In severe cases of impetigo there may be swelling of the lymph glands in the face or neck, severe pain, worsening redness, weakness and fever. If you or your child has these symptoms, see your physician immediately.

What is the public health response?

Impetigo does “not” need to be reported to Alberta Health Services. Public health units can advise on the control of outbreaks. Schools and Childcare settings must notify parents of students who have potential to contract Impetigo, Parents, Guardians and care givers should be made aware of signs and symptoms and treatment methods that are available to prevent the spread.

Group A streptococcal infection may lead to other rare conditions such as acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis 3-6 weeks after the skin infection, which is associated with antibodies produced to fight streptococcal infection. “Consult your physician”

  • In communities in “Australia” that have cases of rheumatic heart disease, episodes of acute rheumatic fever are thought to be triggered by impetigo as well as by throat infections with group A Streptococcus. In those communities prompt treatment and control of impetigo is an important part of preventing rheumatic heart disease.

We never know what can happen, its always good to be prepared and have the knowledge we need to help those who need it.

“This material is for information purposes only and is taken from The Canadian Red Cross / Alberta Heart & Stroke Foundation & Alberta Health Services. This information should not be used in place of medical, Technical advice, instructor, and/or treatment. If you have questions, speak to your local Physician or Safety Training Facility.”

Just Remember:

Protect Yourself!!! Call 911!!! Don’t Waste Time!!!

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GOUT

GOUT

What is Gout?

Gout is a painful condition similar to arthritis involving the joints as the body is subjected to an imbalance of Uric Acid build up. The joints are the most commonly affected part of the body, especially the big toes and knee’s. When the big toes are involved it is known as “Podagra”. Uric Acid can also be deposited in the kidneys and urinary tract causing “Kidney Stones”, if left untreated this can also lead to “Kidney Damage”.

Progressive gout can cause bone deterioration and deformity of the extremities. When someone has many attacks over years, Tophaceous gout can develop. “Tophaceous Gout” means that a large amounts of Uric Acid crystals have accumulated into masses called “Tophi” aka “Toe-fi”. Tophi are visible and/or can be felt in the soft tissues over joints “Looking like large Cysts or Blisters on the joints”, this is especially common on fingers, hands, elbows, feet, and Achilles tendons. They can even have a white or yellow substance inside which could be drained when inflamed by medical professionals.

What causes Gout?

Gout is caused by a defect or damage to your renal system or commonly known as your Urinary System “Two Kidneys, Two Ureters, a Urethra and a Bladder”, this damage causes an abundance of “uric acid” to be formed. When we eat foods high in purines, the body breaks down the purines by creating uric acid, an over abundance of uric acid then can cause a painful condition involving the joints similar to arthritis as the body then accumulates uric acid unable to excrete it fast enough through normal bladder channels. About a third of those who produce high levels of Uric Acid will develop Gout, however it is not known why some people develop symptoms and others do not. Once the Uric Acid is in the blood stream it can form sharp, needle like crystals that are deposited in the joints, tendons, and surrounding tissues.

Risk Factors also include:

Etiology “the cause, set of causes, or manner of causation”

Obesity
High Blood Pressure

Pathobiology “The branch of biology that deals with pathology”

Injury or recent surgery
Fasting or Overeating “Irregular eating habits”
Consuming excessive amounts of Alcohol on a regular basis.
Diets high in meat, shellfish, and beverages sweetened with high-fructose corn syrup
Taking medications that increase blood levels of uric acid “Diuretics”

Pathology “the science of the causes and effects of diseases”

Renal Defect “Defects to your Kidneys, Uriters, Bladder or Urethra”

Diagnosis

Gout can be diagnosed by confirming and identification of monosodium urate crystals in synovial fluid of the affected joint or tissue. The Fluid is drawn from the affected joint to look for the uric acid crystals and often clinicians will treat the gout when there are both classic symptoms and high levels of uric acid in the blood. X-rays of the affected joint may also show calcium-containing crystal deposits in the cartilage and further options may be discussed with your physician on treatment.

Symptoms of GOUT

Symptoms of “Acute Gout” are sudden, severe joint pain with redness, swelling, and tenderness of the joint. The joint may feel quite warm to the touch and even throb.

Pain in your big toes
Pain in your knees, ankles, wrists and or elbows
Intense pain that strikes in the middle of the night “Knees and lower extremeties are often the first to strike”
Pain that occurs in flares: rapidly worsens, then starts to ease up in the joints.
Strange lumps and bumps around your joints
Kidney Stones
Distortion of joints along fingers and toes “Tophi Gout”

Complications

Rapidly progressing “Osteoarthritis” can occur due to wearing down joint cartilage, bone cysts or spurs, and even fractures may occur with prolonged gout flairs.

Pseudo gout – Like Gout, pseudo gout is a form of arthritis that cuases dudden joint pain and swelling. The “Pseudo” part means that it looks like something else. The term Pseudo Gout is used because this is very similar to gout, while gout is caused by “uric acid crystals” pseudo gout is caused by “calcium pyrophosphate dehydrate crystals CPPD. Though the two have similar symptoms, treatment is somewhat different.

Pseudo gout causes sudden attacks of joint pain, swelling, and warmth of the flesh in the affected area and even fever. The attacks can last for days to weeks. The knee is the most commonly affected but it can also affect the ankles, feet, shoulders, elbows, wrists or hands “any joint”. CPPD crystals can also be deposited in the joint cartilage and never cause symptoms.

Treatments of Gout

There is “no” treatment that can “completely” remove or prevent the formation of calcium pyrophosphate dehydrate crystals CPPD “The pain causing calcium crystals in the joints” caused by Pseudo-Gout . Treatments for Gout and Pseud-Gout are generally aimed at reducing pain, swelling and the cause.

– Medications –

Acute Gout – May be treated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs NSAIDS, cortico-steroids

– Colchicine – Often used by people who cannot tolerate NSAIDS. Colchicine can have significant side effects based on the dose used. These side effects include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and abdominal pain.
-Steroids “Prednisone” – Used in people who cannot take NSAIDS’s or Colchicine. Prednisone is associated with an increased risk of a recurrent gout attack.
-Other Medications like “Politicise “Krystexxa”, Probenecid, Xanthine oxidase inhibitors or Haloperidol “Zyloprim” or febuxostat “uloric” may be prescribed by your physician. Please consult your doctor for more information.
– Serum urate-lowering therapy “Talk to your physician about this option”

Prophylactic Therapy – “Medicine or course of action used to prevent disease”

Prophylactic Therapy is used to prevent or reduce the number of acute Gout attacks. It is used when someone has repeated gout attacks, or has already had joint damage or developed tophi.

Long-Term treatment is aimed at lowering the level of uric acid in the blood so that crystals do not form. Colchicine is often used at low doses for a period of time while drugs that lower uric acid levels are started. “Allopurinol” is one of the most commonly used long term drugs. Allopurinol prevents the formation of uric acid, however it can have side effects including “rash, low white blood cell counts, diarrhea and fever”.

For more information please consult your local physician for options that will suite you body’s needs.

Lifestyle

Obesity is a strong risk factor for developing gout or having an acute gout attack. This risk is especially high in those with known cardiovascular disease CVD.

Dietary changes can reduce the frequency of attacks

Reduce

– Avoiding “Red Meat”, including wild game
– Avoiding particular seafood especially “shellfish and large salt water fish”
– Decrease intake of “Saturated Fats”
– Reduce Alcohol Consumption – Alcohol especially “Beer” interferes with the body’s natural ability to eliminate uric acid from the body.
– Avoiding foods and beverages containing “high-fructose corn syrup”
– Joint immobilization – Patients may be advised to avoid weight bearing “walking or running” if the legs or feet are involved and to limit activity for a period of time to minimize pain and swelling. A splint may be used temporarily to limit movement.

Increase

– Increased dietary protein from “low-fat” dairy products
– Increase intake of “whole grains, brown rice, oats or beans
– Coffee Moderate use “may decrease blood uric acid levels”
– Vitamin C 500mg daily has a mild effect on lowering uric acid levels
– Cherries, blueberries, purple grapes, and raspberries have also been found to be beneficial at lowering uric acid levels and promoting a healthy renal system.
– Weight loss significantly reduces the risk of Gout

Support for Gout

For more information please consult your local physician or visit your local online medical group dedicated to Gout.

Click Here for more information

If your symptoms get worse at any time or you notice new symptoms from the list above, call your doctor or Health Link “811 in Alberta”. You can also call the “Health Link Alberta 24/7 if you have questions about C.Diff or any of the information in this handout.

“This material is for information purposes only. It should not be used in place of medical advice, instruction, and/or treatment. If you have questions, speak to your doctor or appropriate healthcare provider.”

In any emergency just remember to Protect Yourself!!! Call 911!!! Don’t Waste Time!!!

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