Tag Archives: Emergency First Aid Training

How to help a Conscious Drowning Person

How to help a Conscious Drowning Person

Drowning can be a very dangerous situation not only for the victim but also for those attempting to rescue people in danger of drowning. You should always refer to a special trained rescuer like a lifeguard to rescue someone by swimming out. The fear of drowning can cause a panic response in victims which can lead to the victim inadvertently dragging the rescuer down with them.

If you do see someone in danger of drowning and you have access to flotation devices like water-boards, pool noodles or something that you can hold out to reach the victim follow these simple steps:

  1. 1) lay down flat on the ground to gain an anchor point for your body, spread your legs and firmly brace yourself.
  2. 2) Hold out the object so that the victim can grab it.
  • -Brace yourself and pull the victim towards the edge of the water allowing the victim to secure themselves.

3) Help the victim from the water if safe to do so.

These steps are designed to help you in any emergency. The difference may be someones life.

This material is for information purposes only and is taken from The Canadian Red Cross / Alberta Heart & Stroke Foundation & Alberta Health Services. This information should not be used in place of medical, Technical advice, instructor, and/or treatment. If you have questions, speak to your local Physician or Safety Training Facility.

Just Remember:

Protect Yourself!!! Call 911!!! Don’t Waste Time!!!

Learn First Aid Today & Save a Life Tomorrow with Saving Grace Medical Academy Ltd.

#FirstAidCourseEdmonton #FirstAidAndBasicLifeSupport #BasicLifeSupport #BLS #BLSforHCP #BCLS #BCLSCourseEdmonton #ACLS #AdvancedCardiovascularLifeSupport #EMR #EmergencyMedicalResponder #ITLS

#Drowning #HelpDrowiningVictim #WaterRescue

Should you move a casualty before providing care?

Should you move a casualty before providing care?

Moving a casualty before you provide care has been a question that almost every class brings up. Its a great question with a simple answer There are some reason’s when moving a person may be the only option to save their life or even prevent them from further injury. You may want to move a casualty if there are dangerous environments which could also do further harm to the patient, dangerous animals, toxins / poisons, or even machinery. One thing to remember “before” you move a casualty is “Will this make things better or worse?” You “do” have to weigh the situation vs desirable outcome, often the phrase used is “Life over Limb“. If the Casualties life is in immediate threat due to their surroundings “Move them away from the danger“, however, if moving them makes the situation worse and their surroundings are “not” an issue “Keep them in the position found or in a position of comfort.”

REMEMBER” You may not have to move a patient, if their “Spine” is in danger always refer to your 911 dispatcher for further advice before attempting First Aid techniques.

How to move a Patient from a dangerous environment:

  • Collar Drag – At the head of the patient – Roll the person’s clothing “Collar” behind their neck in a ball in your hand bunching their clothing under the armpits, bend with your knees and lift with your legs, drag the victim to safety.
  • One Arm Drag – Kneeling at the head of the victim slide the persons torso into your lap, lay one of the victims arms across their chest and reach through their opposite arm pit to grip their folded arms wrist, slip your other hand under the other arm pit and grip the folded arms forearm, bend with your knees, lift with your legs and drag to safety.
  • 2 Person Collar Drag – Combine the one arm drag technique with adding a partner, each rescuer should grab the collar on opposite sides of the victim and facing in the direction you wish to go bend with your knees and lift with your legs dragging them to safety.
  • 2 Person Carry – Combine the “one arm drag” technique to lift the victim’s torso and add a partner to lift the legs by folding them across each other gripping by the lower leg under the calf, face in the direction you wish to go, bend with your knees, lift with your legs and carry the victim to safety.

Learn First Aid Today, Save a Life Tomorrow with Saving Grace Medial Academy Ltd

Above all else remember to Protect Yourself!!! Call 911!!! Don’t Wast Time!!!

#HowToMoveCasualties #FirstAidTrainingEdmonton #BasicLifeSupportEdmonton #H2SAlive #AdvancedCardiovascularLifeSupport #BLSforHCP #HCPCPR #ACLS

Basic Life Support Provider CPR-C “HCP”

Health Care Provider Level CPR “AKA” Basic Life Support Provider BLS
 
Over the years of helping students get the training they need for the employment they require, we have had countless questions on whether or not someone needs the Health Care Provider level CPR also known as Basic Life Support Provider or the general public version of CPR. We understand the confusion as many societies offer their own version of the HCP Health Care Provider CPR course. The final decision on what course a student needs is what their governing society accepts.
 
The general public version of CPR-C helps anyone wishing to learn the benefit of life saving skills on all age groups and helps to prepare to help in life threatening emergencies while you wait for Emergency Professionals to arrive.
 
Some different characteristics of Basic Life Support Provider CPR or Health Care Provider level CPR are the Program is broken down into different sections that show: Compression’s, Breaths, Bag Valve Mask Techniques, teamwork and the difference between Adult, Child and Infant in dealing with Airway obstructions while addressing the Medical Professional’s skills and knowledge.
 
As a comprehensive Video Based Program that sets the standards on all CPR skills for Health Care Providers. Basic Life Support Provider previously known as BLS for HCP CPR & AED and before that BCLS for HCP’s CPR & AED challenges medical professional students on their knowledge and skills on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation. As of November 2017 new standards and skills have been available for all Health Care Professionals to with the most up to date techniques and training information.
 
This year the life saving medication assistance of Naloxone has been added, also known as Narcan (an anti opiate medication used to help those in danger of overdose). The benefit of high quality team work in performing CPR and in the use of AEDs “automatic external defibrillators.” The 2015 version of Basic Life Support Provider focuses on honing the art of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation on all age groups.
 
In Alberta, Canada the governing body Alberta Health Services along with Covenant Health and Canada Health have set the standard and requested that all Medical Professionals have the Exact Same Training. This means they prefer all students and employees to have the same high quality standard of training and skills to achieve the highest quality of resuscitation during a life threatening event. “If ALL health care Professionals have the exact same training the chance of resuscitation go up”
 
Alberta Health Services, Covenant Health, and Canada Health Recommend, Prefer and Request that all Medical Personnel have their Health Care Provider Level CPR known as Basic Life Support Provider training through the Alberta Heart & Stroke Foundation to keep continuity.
 
Alberta Health Services is setting a standard for all Health Care Professionals, doctors, nurses, paramedics, massage therapists, dentists, pharmacists, nurses aids, nurses attendants, and all personnel working in medical facilities to have Basic Life Support Provider CPR or BLS CPR, previously known as Basic Life Support BLS for Health Care Provider HCP CPR. This will ensure that no matter your job title you have the skills to help during an emergency.
 
This excellent program is set on a Video Format and takes roughly 4 hours to complete. This new BLS Basic LIfe Support Provider program through The Heart & Stroke Foundation has attempted to set the standard that every school and every student gets the exact same high quality training.
 
Basic Life Support Provider or BLS previously known as Basic Life Support for Health Care Providers HCP CPR has been shown to provide exactly what Alberta Health Services and many other Health Service Canada centers require and now demand their staff have as training.
 
Our Basic Life Support Program is run through our Edmonton Location with many time slots to chose from. As Alberta Health Services also recommends that due to liability, if your BLS CPR or Basic Life Support for Health Care Provider certificate expires you should not be allowed to work until it is reactivated. For this reason Saving Grace Medical has extended our BLS program course dates as of October 1st to “Monday Through Saturday” and even on Sundays upon request for groups. There will be more Basic Life Support Provider CPR/AED Level C courses available for our students.
 
Getting you the course you need, when you need it! We hope this has helped clear some information on standards set forward by Alberta Health Services.
 
We look forward to seeing you!
 
In any emergency just remember to Protect Yourself!!! Call 911!!! Don’t Waste Time!!!
 
“Learn First Aid in Edmonton Today, Save a Life Tomorrow with Saving Grace Medical Academy’s BLS & Safety Courses.”
 
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Should you drive an ill or injured person to the Hospital?

Should you drive an ill or injured person to the hospital?

This question gets asked by students taking our first aid courses all the time, and we do see the conundrum that many face in an Emergency as Liability, distance, Time or even a persons life may be at stake. For these very reasons we have come up with the simplest way to look at it.

Try not to……, but if you do decide to take a person to the hospital we have included some steps to keep you and the patient safe. Lets call this “Stay & Play VS Load & Go

Stay & Play =Wait for an Ambulance

  • Never drive an ill or injured person to the hospital if their condition is “Life Threatening” or spine related. The movement of being in a vehicle may adversely affect their injuries. You may not have to move the patient, your 911 Dispatcher will advise you on options you may have to secure the best medical aid given.

Load & Go = “Take them to a hospital

  • For “Non-Life Threatening” injuries or illness.
  1. Step #1 – “911 on Speaker Phone” – Have 911 on speaker phone so everyone knows what the dispatcher needs you to do. This will also let the hospital know you are coming.
  2. Step #2 – “Take a Partner” – Have a calm person drive while you continue care. Having a partner to help in an emergency setting can make all the difference. Emergencies can change.
  3. Step #3 – “You Can NOT Speed” – as your vehicle is not a designated emergency vehicle its lack of visibility and sirens will put you and others into danger if you attempt to break the rules of the road. Just remember, if you get there safely, the victim will too, Better safe than sorry.

This material is for information purposes only and is taken from The Canadian Red Cross / Alberta Heart & Stroke Foundation & Alberta Health Services. This information should not be used in place of medical, Technical advice, instructor, and/or treatment. If you have questions, speak to your local Physician or Safety Training Facility.

Just Remember:

Protect Yourself!!! Call 911!!! Don’t Waste Time!!!

Learn First Aid Today & Save a Life Tomorrow with Saving Grace Medical Academy Ltd.

#FirstAidCourseEdmonton #FirstAidAndBasicLifeSupport #BasicLifeSupport #BLS #BLSforHCP #BCLS #BCLSCourseEdmonton #ACLS #AdvancedCardiovascularLifeSupport #EMR #EmergencyMedicalResponder #ITLS #DrivingToTheHospital

The Emergency Medical Services

Most common it is believed that the Emergency Medical System starts with paramedics and nurses, the truth in fact is that the Emergency System begins with “You. There are many reason’s why you may hold back from helping someone in an emergency, fear of infection, fear of Liability, fear of repercussions or even fear of helping in the wrong way.

Just remember that in Alberta you are “NOT” obligated to perform any act of First Aid even if you are certified. However we do hope that you would help or at the very least Call 911.

  • The Sooner you start CPR for a casualty that is not breathing the sooner their brain can get life saving blood and oxygen.
  • Even if your nervous calling 911 is still helping. Emergency workers will only come and help if you call 911.
  • 911 is free – Don’t worry about cost, a person’s life is “Priceless

For any emergency we teach our students the 3 rules of First Aid to help them understand what is truly important during “any” emergency.

  1. Rule #1 – Protect YOURSELFYour safety is most important
  2. Rule #2 – Call 911If it doesn’t look right, it probably isn’t!
  3. Rule #3 – Don’t Waste Time & Treat What You See

911 with help you if you forget how to do basic treatments, splints, slings, bandages and other things are easily done with simple guidance. Don’t worry, there are no wrong questions when talking to 911 “They are there to help you, Help others!”

Remember

This material is for Information / Educational purposes only and is taken from the Canadian Medical Association. It should not be used in place of medical advice, instruction, and/or treatment. If you have questions, speak to your doctor or appropriate healthcare provider.

In any emergency just remember to Protect Yourself!!! Call 911!!! Don’t Waste Time!!!

Learn First Aid Today, Save a Life Tomorrow, let first aid training in Edmonton be your Saving Grace

#FirstAidCourseEdmonton #BasicLifeSupport #BLS #BLSforHCP #BCLS #BCLSCourseEdmonton #ACLS #AdvancedCardiovascularLifeSupport #EMR #EmergencyMedicalResponder #ITLS

Cannabis – Information from the Source

This post is a quick guide to help you understand the information that is being tossed out to the internet about Cannabis and understand the difference between true researched information and fiction. Questions you may have about Cannabis or Marijuana like “Can it Cure Cancer? Does it help with Seizures? Can you Overdose? What are the effects on the brain? Can I use it while pregnant? What are the effects on the body?”. These questions we’ll hopefully address and shed some light on the true nature of this versatile plant.

What is Cannabis?

Cannabis is derived from the Cannabis plant “Cannabis Sativa / Indica / Ruderalis” , it grows wild in many of the tropical and temperate areas of the world. It can grow in almost any climate, and is increasingly cultivated by means of indoor hydroponics technology. Cannabis must not get confused with Hemp, they are from the same plant family but are completely different in appearance, chemical make up, cultivation and application. Although they may look the same, Hemp completely lacks the psychoactive properties that Cannabis is known for. For more information on Hemp please visit https://ministryofhemp.com/hemp/not-marijuana/

The main ingredient in Cannabis is called “Delta-9 tetrahydro-cannabin”, commonly known as “THC”. This is the part of the plant that gives the “high” or psychoactive properties. There is a wide range of THC potency between cannabis products.

Cannabis is used in Four main forms “Marijuana, Medical Edible Oil, hashish and hash oil. Marijuana is made from dried flowers and leaves of the cannabis plant. It is the least potent of all the cannabis products and is usually smoked or made into edible products like cookies or brownies. Hashish is made from the resin “a secreted gum” of the cannabis plant. It is dried and pressed into small blocks and smoked. It can also be added to food and eaten. Hash oil, the most potent cannabis product, is a thick oil obtained from hashish, it can also be smoked. Medical Grade Cannabis oil is generally ingested sublingual to absorb directly into the blood stream, it may also be put into foods and other products with a milder affect.

To achieve the desired affect or “High” that some patients are looking for, Cannabis is usually smoked in hand rolled cigarettes “Known as Joints” or special water pipes “Bongs” or even Vapes or Vaporized. These pipes or bongs can be bought or made, for safety reasons please consult your physician or local distributor.

Why do People use Cannabis?

Cannabis has many functions, primarily in previous years it has been used to experience a sense of mild euphoria and relaxation, often referred to as a “high”. However, this should not be confused as there is a difference in the types of plants that produce a compound called Cannabidiol “CBD” versus tetrahydrocannabinol or “THC”.

Consuming / Smoking cannabis with a mild to high level of THC causes changes in the user’s mood and also affects how they think and perceive the environment, e.g everyday activities such as watching the television and listening to music can become altered and more intense as THC acts as a psychoactive.

Short Term Effects of THC Include:

  • Feeling of well-being
  • Talkativeness
  • Drowsiness
  • Loss of inhibitions
  • Decreased Nausea
  • Increased appetite
  • Loss of Co-ordination “Slowed / altered Motor Skills”
  • Bloodshot eyes
  • Dryness of the eyes, mouth and throat.
  • Anxiety & Paranoia – Amplification of conditions like Schizophrenia

With current medical research CBD or Cannabidiol has been shown to act as a mild to high level analgesic and has properties that can benefit many medical conditions such as, fibromyalgia, muscular or skeletal including spinal damage, seizures, chronic pain and more. CBD has “No psychoactive properties” and will not make you high or lower your ability to function or operate machinery. For a more detailed list on what CBD may help with consult your local physician to see if its right for you.

CBD versus THC

As legal use of medical Cannabis and other products become more available you may have more questions like what is the difference between CBD and THC. Although they are similar even down to the same molecular structure “21 carbon atoms, 30 hydrogen atoms & 2 oxygen atoms” the “bioavailability” and your body’s way to process them is completely different. Your “Endocannabinoid system” also known as ESC is a biological system composed of endocannabinoids which are endogenous lipid-based retrograde neurotransmitters that bind to cannabinoid receptors “Works with your central nervous system, including the brain”

“Despite their similar chemical structures, CBD and THC don’t have the same psychoactive effect.”

CBD – Medical Benefits

  • Seizure “Reduction in time & severity”
  • Inflammation reduction
  • Cancer “Reduction in Pain or discomfort”
  • Pain / acute or chronic reduction “Moderate form Analgesic”
  • Inflammatory bowel disease “reduction in severity”
  • Nausea “low form Antiemetic”
  • Migraines “Reduction in time & Severity”
  • Psychosis or mental disorder “Moderate Aid in reduction of anxiety / depression”

THC – Medical Benefits

  • Glaucoma “Reduction of Intracranial Pressure”
  • Cancer “Reduction in Pain or discomfort”
  • Insomnia “Reduction in mucosal membrane production / Dry eyes”
  • Low appetite “Increases appetite”
  • Nausea “Moderate form Antiemetic”
  • Muscle Spasticity “Muscle Relaxant”
  • Anxiety “Reduces inhibitions”
  • Pain “Low form analgesic”

Side Effects

CBD is well tolerated, even in large doses. Research suggests any side effects that do occur with CBD use are likely the result of “drug-to-drug” interactions between CBD and other medications you may be taking.

THC causes temporary side effects as long as you continue to use THC products.

  • Increased Heart Rate
  • Coordination Problems “Slow Reaction Rate”
  • Dry Mouth
  • Red Eyes “Dry eyes”
  • Memory Loss
  • Impairment “Inability to judge distance and time”
  • Anxiety / Paranoia increase “Schizophrenia like symptoms”
  • Brain Development inhibitor “THC is proven to reduce brain development in Children / Teens & adolescence leading to long lasting side effects and reduction in brain function”
  • Addiction – THC “is” an addictive psychoactive substance that can lead to long term dependency and use. If you feel you ”Need” THC to cope or deal with life and consume it every day speak to your doctor about addiction counseling. The statement that many use is “I can quit any time I want, I just don’t want too. I don‘t need it I just prefer it”

Questions & Answers

  • Does Cannabis cure cancer?

No” Current Medical Research does not support the use of Cannabis as a “Cure” of Cancer. However Cannabis has been shown to greatly benefit the symptoms and discomfort associated with this ailment.

  • Can I smoke or use Cannabis while pregnant?

Do not Smoke or consume THC while pregnant, Smoking THC while pregnant “May alleviate nausea symptoms, reduce stress and discomfort on the mother”, however the smoke itself is harmful to the baby and will reduce blood oxygen ratio to the unborn child‘s brain, this will reduce central nervous system & brain development in their most critical stage. Smoking during Pregnancy of any substance increases the risk of SIDS “Sudden Infant Death Syndrome” and Brain Development Damage. THC will pass through the placental barrier and reduce brain development leading to long lasting side effects. The Canadian Medical Association strongly urges you “Do Not Smoke While Pregnant” of any substance. Consumption of CBD with “edibles / oils” during pregnancy at this time has no current medical side effects.

  • What age is safe to use Cannabis?

At this time medical research has proven that early consumption of THC can greatly impact brain development and psychological well being. THC has now been medically proven to reduce and permanently damage synaptic relay time, emotional regulation, as well as cognitive function and psychological well being. For this reason many countries that have legalized Cannabis use warn that age groups that still have brain development progress should avoid THC to avoid risk of Brain Development damage, for this reason Canada Health Advises “Don‘t use THC if you or your family has a history of psychosis, substance use disorders or other mental health problems“. Legal age in Canada for consumption of such substances is 18-21 depending on the province. Consumption of CBD at this time has no current medical side effects.

  • Can you overdose on Cannabis?

Yes” you can Overdose quite rapidly if you are unsure of the quality, quantity or percentage of THC present in the Cannabis product you are consuming. Symptoms include Nausea, vomiting, light headed, shortness of breath, inability to focus, vertigo, tightness of chest, unconsciousness and more. The method of consumption also plays a factor on the length of time and severity of the overdose, currently common methods of consumption include inhalation “smoking / vaping / bong”, ingested “Edibles / Oils”, Absorbed “topical ointments”, Injected “Do not inject Cannabis” For these reasons please consult your physician and do not personally alter your dosage without consulting a medical professional. Consumption of CBD at this time has no current medical side effects or documented Overdose.

  • Can I drive after using Cannabis?

In Alberta Canada Cannabis use or “Mind Altering substance use” of any kind is strictly prohibited and Cannabis containing THC is “Banned” from being in cars or any motor vehicle, with the exception of those being used as a temporary residence, such as “parked” RV’s. As THC can alter your mood, reaction time, and consciousness “Do not consume THC and operate a vehicle of any kind” “Stay alive, don’t use and drive

To answer more questions and go through the research provided above please visit https://aglc.ca/cannabis

There are many false articles circulating around the internet about Cannabis use and the interaction it has within your body. Please do your research, follow your medical professionals advice, and above all else do not buy or use illegally grown / sold or altered Cannabis.

This material is for information purposes only and is taken from the Canadian Medical Association, the Drugs and Addictions Center, and AGLC. It should not be used in place of medical or legal advice, instructor, and / or treatment. If you have questions, speak to your doctor or appropriate healthcare professional

In any emergency just remember to Protect Yourself!!! Call 911!!! Don’t Waste Time!!!

Learn First Aid Today, Save a Life Tomorrow, let first aid training in Edmonton be your Saving Grace

#FirstAidCourseEdmonton #H2SAlive #BasicLifeSupport #BLS #BLSforHCP #BCLS #BCLSCourseEdmonton #ACLS #AdvancedCardiovascularLifeSupport #EMR #EmergencyMedicalResponder #ITLS #Cannabis #THC #CBD #Weed #Merijuana

Cysts – What are they?

What is a Cyst? This article is designed to help you understand more about yourself, others, and the medical world around you. Many view the word “Cyst” as being unclean, or infectious, or disease bearing. The truth about Cycts is actually quite far from those.

What are Cysts?

Cysts are one of the most common benign tumors of the skin. They present as a round, rubbery, mobile mass that stretches out the overlaying skin and is tethered to the surface of the skin by a pore or “punctum”, this “punctumacts like a tether that allows the Cyst to “float“ more often than not in the surrounding bodily fluids.

  • Cysts can be found “anywhere on or in the body, and anyone can have them.
  • The term “Cystrefers to a fluid-filled structure of cells, whereas a tumor consist of a mass of abnormal cells with abnormal growth potential. Cysts are not associated with tumors typically as they have a very thin rim surrounding the fluid and may be popped, whereas a tumor would have a thickened rim that surrounds it that expands with time.
  • Types of Cysts – arachnoid, colloid, dermoid, epidermis, pineal, cervical, breast, ganglion, etc…

What causes a Cyst?

Cysts frequently result from a plugging of the pore. A sac of skin forms and gets larger as it becomes filled with keratin, a component of your skin cells, CSF “Cerebral Spinal Fluid“, colloid, or blood. Keratin is a pasty, whitish material that sometimes can be expressed from the cyst and tends to have a foul odor.

Is a Cyst Harmful?

Often No, however there are circumstances where they could cause damage, lack of blood flow, or harmful pressure to build up on the surrounding tissue and organs. Normally cysts are “benign” and do not develop into cancers. Once in a while, they may rupture and become inflamed which results in redness, swelling and pain in the area. Sometimes pus will drain. To avoid inflammation or infection of a cysts, it is best “not” to squeeze it.

Does a Cyst need to be removed?

The majority of cysts cause no problems and therefore do not need to be removed, it is the location of the cyst and the level of discomfort that will dictate your desire to have them removed. On occasion, a cyst may become objectionably large, interfere with function, get inflamed or are symptomatic. In these cases, removal is achieved by local surgical excision. Small, asymptomatic cysts may be removed electively by contracting your physician to arrange an elective removal. “Always consult your physician before making body modifications.

  • Very often, cysts do not produce any symptoms and do not enlarge over time. If a cyst is not causing symptoms and is not thought to be associated with a tumor, you might never develop a problem with the cyst. An operation to remove the cyst might carry a greater risk than living with the cyst. Your doctor can help you weight the risks of “watching and waiting” with the risks of undergoing surgery.
  • How can a doctor tell if the cyst is not cancerous? A CT “Cat Scan” or particularly, an MRI scan of a cyst generally shows no solid or nodular components that could suggest an associated “malignant tumor”. Sometimes, when a cyst appears benign but the doctor cannot be 100% certain, repeated radiological studies over time will be recommended. A malignant tumor would be expected to grow over time, whereas a benign cyst might not.
  • Is radiation therapy ever used to treat a Cyst? In general, radiation is used to kill dividing cells “cancerous growth. The fluid inside a cyst does not contain dividing cells, and the cells forming the walls of most cysts “including arachnoid, colloid, dermoid, epidermis, and pineal cysts” are not dividing. If the cyst is suspected of being malignant or tumor related a pointed dose of radiation may be injected “into” the cyst to destroy the cells within, however this is rare and your physician would know more.

Will I develop more Cysts?

You may develop more cysts over time and there is no way to prevent this from happening. You may also only ever have one cyst in your lifetime. Cysts have many factors which allow the cells to grow in such a manor, environment, radiation exposure, mould, bacteria, viruses, the reason why a cyst would appear is quite vast and unfortunately not always apparent.

In general, if the wall of the cyst is completely removed, the chance of the cyst recurrence I quite low. If the cyst is drained but the “bubble” or sack that contained the fluid is left intact, the odds of fluid re-accumulating are much higher as the cell walls may “heal” and reseal fluid within.

Do I have a disease if I have a Cyst?

  • Answer – “No

A cyst is a random event that does have some factors too their appearance. Typically a Cyst does not have an associated disease or cause, they are a random occurrence that anyone could have.

This material is for information purposes only and is taken from the Canadian Medical Association. It should not be used in place of medical advice, instruction, and/or treatment. If you have questions, speak to your doctor or appropriate healthcare provider.

In any emergency just remember to Protect Yourself!!! Call 911!!! Don’t Waste Time!!!

Learn First Aid Today, Save a Life Tomorrow, let first aid training in Edmonton be your Saving Grace

#FirstAidCourseEdmonton #BasicLifeSupport #BLS #BLSforHCP #BCLS #BCLSCourseEdmonton #ACLS #AdvancedCardiovascularLifeSupport #EMR #EmergencyMedicalResponder #ITLS #Cyst #WhatAreCysts #AreCystsCancer

Hydrocephalus

What is Hydrocephalus?

Hydrocephalus is a condition in which there has been an excess build up of CSF “Cerebrospinal Fluid” a clear fluid surrounding the brain. The excessive accumulation of CSF results in an abnormal dilation of the spaces in the brain called “Ventricles”, this dilation causes harmful pressure to build up on the brain and connective tissues.

  • Hydrocephalus “Water on the Brain”, in Greek literally means “watery head”, “Hydro” meaning water, and “Cephalus” referring to the head.
  • Hydrocephalus can happen at ANY age
  • Hydrocephalus is life threatening and has a 75% chance of causing long lasting brain damage and motor disability, and a 30% mental disability rate.
  • More than 50% of hydrocephalus is congenital “present at birth

What are Ventricles?

The ventricular system is a set of four interconnected cavities (ventricles) in the brain, where the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is produced. Within each ventricle is a region of choroid plexus, a network of ependymal cells involved in the production of CSF. The ventricular system is continuous with the central canal of the spinal cord (from the fourth ventricle) allowing for the flow of CSF to circulate. All of the ventricular system and the central canal of the spinal cord are lined with ependyma, a specialized form of epithelium.

What is CSF “Cerebrospinal Fluid”?

Cerebrospinal Fluid, the clear fluid surrounding the brain and spinal cord has three critical functions:

  • It acts as a “Shock absorber” for the brain and spinal cord to protect the brains connective tissue from harmful impact damage and excess movement.
  • It acts as a river to flow nutrients to the brain and remove waste
  • It flows between the cranium and spine to regulate changes in pressure within the brain.

Common Causes

A variety of medical problems can cause hydrocephalus. In many children the problem is there at “birth”, this kind of hyrocephalis is referred to as “congenital”. Most cases of congenital hydrocephalus are thought to be caused by a complex interaction of genetic and environmental factors “Exposure to radiation, mould, virus, bacteria, genetic defect, impact damage in utero, Car accident and so on

  • Aqueductal Obstruction “Stenosis” – The most common cause of congenital hydrocephalus is obstruction “narrowing or blockage” of the cerebral aqueduct “a long, narrow passageway between the third and fourth ventricle in the brain.NO FEVER
  • Neural Tube Defects, or MyelomeningoceleSpina Bifida, meaning “Open spine”, actually refers to the condition in which the structures of vertebrae, muscles, ligaments, etc… supporting and protecting the spinal cord are impaired, not the spinal cord itself.
  • Intraventricular Haemorrhage – Intraventricular haemorrhage is an acquired form of hydrocephalus and most frequently affects premature newborns. It occurs when small blood vessels lying alongside the ventricular lining of the brain rupture. This can lead to scarring of the ventricles or plug the arachnoid villi sites of CSF absorption.
  • Meningitis & Bacterial / Viral Exposure – Meningitis is an inflammation of the membranes “Meninges” of the brain and spinal cord. It may be caused by bacterial infections or, less frequently, viral infections. FEVER
  • Head Trauma – A head trauma can damage the brains tissues, nerves or blood vessels. Blood from these ruptured vessels may enter the CSF pathways and cause blockage or restricted flow.
  • Tumours – In children, brain tumors most commonly occur in the back of the brain “posterior fossa”. as a tumor grows it may fill or compress the ventricles blocking the flow of CSF.
  • Cysts – Arachnoid cysts are congenital in origin and may occur anywhere in the brain. In children, they are often located in the back of the brain and in the region of the third ventricle.
  • Dandy-Walker Syndrome – Dandy-Walker Syndrome is where the fourth ventricle “last ventricle to the spine” is enlarged because of partial or complete closure of its outlets “no drainage of CSF”. Associated with developmental defects.

Symptoms “How to recognise it

“If you suspect Hyrdocephalus DO NOT HESITATE, the Childs life is in Danger!

In Infant age 0-1: Abnormal Enlargement of Babe’s head, soft spot “fontanel” is tense and bulging: scalp can appear thin “Stretched due to the swelling” prominent scalp veins, NO FEVER in congenital hydrocephalus, vomiting, drowsiness, irritability, downward deviation of baby’s eyes “Sun-setting eyes”, seizure, poor appetite.

In Child age 1-8: Headache “Rubbing at head or ears“, Nausea, vomiting, “NO FEVER in congenital hydrocephalus” lethargy, limp movements, unable to stay awake, poor coordination, change in personality, loss of motor functions, seizure and poor appetite, From Birth-Abnormal Enlargement of Babe’s head.

In Adult age 8+: Headache, difficulty remaining awake or waking up, loss of coordination or balance, bladder control problems, impaired “double vision”, cognitive impairment

Elderly – Loss of coordination or balance, shuffling gait, memory loss, headache, bladder control loss, forgetfulness, migraine like symptoms. Nausea, vomiting, drowsiness.

What can you do?

Take them to the Hospital Immediately! Hydrocephalus can easily be misdiagnosed as a viral infection and be prescribed antibiotics “This will not help in congenital hydrocephalusNO FEVER and lead to potential for increased brain damage. Hydrocephalus needs immediate surgery to minimize brain damage and potential for death.

Diagnosing Hydrocephalus

Parents should remember that this is “Not” your fault”

Your Doctor will recommend a course of treatment based on what they find, they will review medical history and perform examinations including a complete neurological examination with diagnostic testing. “Do not be afraid to ask questions regarding symptoms / options / treatments”, anything that you can think of to help narrow down the cause can impact the treatments available. The neurological examination will also help to determine the severity of the child’s condition. Further tests such as ultrasound “if the patient is an infant”, computed tomography “CT or CAT scan”, or a magnetic resonance imaging “MRI” may be ordered. The more your neurosurgeon knows the more likely the chance to minimize brain damage and death. They will also ask for information regarding head circumference at birth along with birth weight, health, defects and head development.

Treatments?

Hydrocephalus can be treated in only three or four ways with current medical technology “2018“. The problem area may be treated directly “removing the cause of CSF obstruction”, or indirectly by diverting the fluid somewhere else. In some cases, two procedures are performed, one to divert the CSF temporarily, and another on a later stage to remove the cause of the obstruction.

  1. Shunt – Often in the emergency setting hydrocephalus is treated at the beginning with a “Shunt”. A shunt is a flexible but sturdy silastic tube. A shunt system consist of the shunt, a catheter, and a valve. One end of the catheter is placed within a ventricle inside the brain, but also may be placed potentially within a cyst or site close to the spinal cord. The other end of the catheter is commonly placed within the abdominal cavity, but may also be placed at other sites within the body so excess CSF can be absorbed. “Shunt systems are not perfect devices” Complications may include mechanical failure, infections, obstructions, length, improper flow “too much or too little CSF” or deterioration. Each time the Shunt has a malfunction potential for brain damage increases exponentially.
  2. Obstruction Removal – Neurosurgery is performed to remove the blockage, cyst, tumor that is causing the blockage of CSF flow. CT – Cat scans and MRI’s are needed to see if this is an option, your Neurosurgeon will know once they have all the data and information for them to assess weather removing the obstruction is possible.
  3. Endoscopic Third Ventriculostomy “ETV” – This surgery involves making a hole in the floor of the third ventricle to allow free flow of spinal fluid into the basil cisterns for absorption of CSF. Many neurosurgeons “do not” perform ETV on children below the age of 2 due to the failure rate of up to 40%. However, ETV has the benefit of consistent pressure, flow and the lack of non natural parts within the body, this reduces the chance of malfunction leading to brain damage or death. Depending on the hydrocephalus ETV has a patency rate for up to five years with a 50%-80% no malfunction rate. “Candidacy” – ETV is clearly appropriate for treating “obstructive non-communication hydrocephalus It is controversial as to weather it is effective in treating non-obstructive communication hydrocephalus. Although some neurosurgeons have used it successfully in these cases with a 1.0% infection rate.
  4. Endoscopic Third Ventriculostomy & Choriod Plexus Cauterization “ETV & CPC” – This technique combines ETV with a procedure called Choroid Plexus Cauterization “CPC”. CPC is where your neurosurgeon in the middle of the ETV inserts a specialized tool “wire” to cauterize the CP tissue beginning at the right foramen of Monro, and following it back to the typically mobile glomus choroideum in the atrium. Your neurosurgeon will have more details to explain the procedure, however by combining ETV and CPC the chances of successfully holding proper Intracranial CSF fluid pressure increase, infection rates decrease to 1.0% or less and raise the success rate of the procedures in general.

Communication VS Non-Communicating Deffinition

  • Communicating – Communicating Hydrocephalus is when the flow of CSF is blocked after exiting the ventricles, however CSF is still able to flow between the ventricles but is blocked from draining out.
  • Non-Communicating – Non-Communicating also known as “Obstructive” Hydrocephalus occurs from “Aqueductal stenosis” a narrowing of the tube “aquaduct of Sylvius” that flows between the 3rd ventricle and 4th ventricle before exiting to the spine. “This is the most common cause of Hydrocephalus

Long Term Outcome

There is Hope” – The prognosis for patients diagnosed with hydrocephalus is difficult to predict, although there is some correlation between the specific “cause” of the hydrocephalus, the time between when symptoms began, diagnosis & treatment, as well as the age of the patients can influence the outcome. Brain Damage and complications are further compounded by the presence of associated disorders, the degree to which decompression “relief of CSF pressure or build-up” following shunt placement can also further complicate risks. Parents and guardians should be aware that up to 70% of hydrocephalus patience suffer from both cognitive and physical development disorders.

However “There is Hope” – Those affected by hydrocephalus benefit from rehabilitation therapies and educational interventions, many children go on to lean normal lives with few limitations. Treatment by an interdisciplinary team of medical professionals, rehabilitation specialists, and educational experts are critical to a positive outcome.

Although most children with hydrocephalus are within the normal range of intelligence, most experience “specific” learning difficulties. Immediate memory and auditory/verbal information may be intact, however, there is a rapid loss of information over time and difficulty in retrieving the appropriate bit of information due to brain tissue damage. Most students find it hard to organize themselves, plan ahead and think flexibly. In addition, some may experience difficulty in understanding the passage of time or understand when matters are urgent.

There are many resources out there to help you guide your child through this difficult emergency. For more information contact your physician and don’t be afraid to ask questions or seek support groups.

This material is for information purposes only and is taken from the Hydrocephalus Association and Hydrocephalus Foundation. It should not be used in place of medical advice, instruction, and/or treatment. If you have questions, speak to your doctor or appropriate healthcare provider.

In any emergency just remember to Protect Yourself!!! Call 911!!! Don’t Waste Time!!!

Learn First Aid Today, Save a Life Tomorrow, let first aid training in Edmonton be your Saving Grace

#FirstAidCourseEdmonton #H2SAlive #BasicLifeSupport #BLS #BLSforHCP #BCLS #BCLSCourseEdmonton #ACLS #AdvancedCardiovascularLifeSupport #EMR #EmergencyMedicalResponder #ITLS #Hydrocephalus #EndoscopicThirdVentriculostomy

What is Impetigo?

Impetigo is a bacterial skin infection often found on the face, bottom and hands caused by “streptococcus and Staphylococcus aureus AKA: staph” bacteria. It is commonly known as “school sores” because a majority of cases are in school-aged children. However, it can also affect infants, adults and adolescents.

Uncomplicated Impetigo does “not” cause permanent damage to the skin, but is “HIGHLY contagious.”

What does it look like?

Impetigo can easily be misdiagnosed on first glance as Hand Foot & Mouth or even Herpes”.

Impetigo occurs in two forms, blistering and crusted. In Blistering Impetigo the blisters arise on previously normal skin, and “rapidly” grow in size and number. The blisters quickly burst and leave slightly moist or glazed areas with a brown/yellow crust at the edge. The spots expand even after they break open and can be many centimeters wide. They sometimes clear in the center to produce ring shaped patterns. They are “not” usually painful, but can be itchy.

Impetigo usually appears around the nose, mouth, and other parts of the face. It can also appear on any skin not covered by clothes, such as arms and legs. Impetigo may even appear on the groin or buttocks.

In severe cases of impetigo there may be swelling of the lymph glands in the face or neck, severe pain, worsening redness, weakness and fever. “Consult your physician immediately

  • Crusted Impetigo has a thick soft yellow crust. Beneath this crust is a moist red area. Crusted Impetigo spots grow slowly and are always smaller than the fully developed spots of blistering Impetigo. They are “not” usually painful, but can be itchy.
  • Impetigo can occur on top of other skin conditions, particularly itchy ones. When the skin is scratched the infection can enter through the broke skin. Some of these conditions are atopic dermatitis “eczema”, scabies, insect bites and head lice.
  • In cases where a larger area of skin is affected, patience may also have a fever, swollen lymph nodes or feel generally unwell.

How is it diagnosed?

Your doctor may diagnose impetigo based on a visual inspection of the blisters/sores, or by taking a swab to test for bacteria and check which antibiotic to use. The result of the swab takes several days.

How is it treated?

Depending on how bad the infection is, your doctor may recommend the use of an antibiotic ointment or oral antibiotics in severe cases. Antibiotic ointment should be continued until the sores have completely healed. If oral antibiotics are given it is important to finish the whole course of treatment “usually 5 days” and not stop when the impetigo starts to clear. “The blemishes may vanish but the bacteria may remain”.

Sores should be cleaned every 8-12 hours “Soap and Water”, dried thoroughly and covered with a waterproof dressing. Bathing the blisters with salty water will help to dry them out “use saline solution or dissolve about half a teaspoon of salt in a cup of water”.

How is it Spread?

Impetigo is very easy to catch from other people! Impetigo is usually spread through direct contact with other infected people.

The Bacteria primarily enters through damaged skin. People with conditions causing long term damage to their skin, such as eczema or atopic dermatitis, are at greater risk of infection.

How can you avoid spreading the infection?

“While you have the infection”:

  • Sores should be kept clean and covered with a waterproof dressing to prevent them being touched or scratched.
  • Used dressings should be placed in a sealed bag and put in the garbage bin as soon as they are removed.
  • Hands should be washed thoroughly with soap and running water for 10-15 seconds after sores are touched or redressed.
  • Children with impetigo should be kept home from school or other group settings if their wounds cannot be kept covered until 24 hours after antibiotic treatment has been started, or until the blisters have dried out if antibiotics are not used.
  • Bedding “Pillow Cases” should be changed and washed each day.

To Prevent Impetigo children should be taught:

  • To wash their hands often with soap.
  • Not to scratch scabs or pick their nose.
  • Not to share their clothes, towels, pillowcases, or toothbrushes
  • To have scratches and cuts cleaned and covered

Parents should be careful not to allow items such as clothes, towels, bed sheets, razors or toothbrushes used by the affected person to be used by others. Other grooming items, such as nail scissors or tweezers, should be disinfected / washed thoroughly after each use.

School and Childcare Impetigo Prevention.

In addition to general hygiene measures, specific measures to prevent spread in schools and childcare include:

  • Teachers, children and families should understand the importance of hand washing, covering sores and staying home if sick.
  • Hand washing products “soap dispensers, running water and paper towels” should be available and accessible.
  • Activities should allow time for hand washing as part of routine practice “before eating and after going to the toilet”
  • Temporary exclusion from child care or school if their wounds cannot be kept covered until 24 hours after antibiotic treatment as been started, or until the blisters have dried out if antibiotics are not used.
  • Surfaces such as counters, desks and toys that come in contact with uncovered or poorly covered infections, should be cleaned daily with detergent, and whenever visibly contaminated.

Impetigo “is” dangerous for babies!

It is important for people with Impetigo to keep away from newborns and young babies. Newborn babies are particularly susceptible to impetigo and because their immune systems are not fully developed. This can lead to serious complications, if you suspect your newborn has Impetigo see your physician immediately.

In severe cases of impetigo there may be swelling of the lymph glands in the face or neck, severe pain, worsening redness, weakness and fever. If you or your child has these symptoms, see your physician immediately.

What is the public health response?

Impetigo does “not” need to be reported to Alberta Health Services. Public health units can advise on the control of outbreaks. Schools and Childcare settings must notify parents of students who have potential to contract Impetigo, Parents, Guardians and care givers should be made aware of signs and symptoms and treatment methods that are available to prevent the spread.

  • Group A streptococcal infection may lead to other rare conditions such as acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis 3-6 weeks after the skin infection, which is associated with antibodies produced to fight streptococcal infection. “Consult your physician”
  • In communities in “Australia that have cases of rheumatic heart disease, episodes of acute rheumatic fever are thought ot be triggered by impetigo as well as by throat infections with group A Streptococcus. In those communities prompt treatment and control of impetigo is an important part of preventing rheumatic heart disease.

“This material is for information purposes only and is taken from the CDC and Canadian Medical Association. It should not be used in place of medical advice, instruction, and/or treatment. If you have questions, speak to your doctor or appropriate healthcare provider.”

In any emergency just remember to Protect Yourself!!! Call 911!!! Don’t Waste Time!!!

Learn First Aid Today, Save a Life Tomorrow, let first aid training in Edmonton be your Saving Grace

#FirstAidCourseEdmonton #H2SAlive #BasicLifeSupport #BLS #BLSforHCP #BCLS #BCLSCourseEdmonton #ACLS #AdvancedCardiovascularLifeSupport #EMR #EmergencyMedicalResponder #ITLS #Impetigo #FaceBlisters

“HELP!!!” Emergency Numbers of Alberta – Knowledge worth Knowing

In Alberta Canada many people don’t know what “HELP” is available during an emergency. Who would you call if there was a wild or strange animal in your yard or in the neighborhood? If I am alone and frightened, depressed, scared of someone or something I cant explain who can I call? What is the Poison Control number? Animal Control? Fire? Ambulance? Police? These questions we’ll address as the Canadian Government has put some “Quick Access Numbers” into use that will help. We’ll explain below what each one is and how to utilize them.

“911”

In Alberta Canada like many other provinces 911 handles a multitude of Emergency Related phone calls. For this reason the Canadian Government has linked 911 to many other emergency hot lines to help streamline the process of getting Emergency Service Workers in touch with you. For this reason, This will help you as you only need to remember 911 and the 911 Dispatcher will help get you to the right emergency connection line. 911 is linked to:

  • Animal Control,
  • Poison Control,
  • Police,
  • Ambulance,
  • Fire
  • CSIS.

“811”

Health Link” a 24/7 call center provides a number of clinical services including tele-triage and health advice, navigation services and online content support for all Albertans by calling 811 or by using one of its companion web products, MyHealth.Alberta.ca or informAlberta.ca. The specific services include:

  • Symptom-based nurse triage and health information
  • System navigation
  • Dementia Advice Service
  • Catch-A-Break Osteoporosis screening
  • AlbertaQuits Tobacco Helpline
  • Addictions information and referral
  • Central Access to specialized services
  • Referrals to clinical services including Specialized Medication Advice and Dietitian Services

“711”

“NOT IN SERVICE”

“611”

Phone Service Line” Will not help during emergencies

“511”

Traffic Information – Transportation Canada “Alberta” has put this number into service to help those on the highway remain safe and in the know. Road conditions can change rapidly as our weather changes along with driver conditions. This number will help you get in touch with an Automated / Representative that can help give you “Journey Management Options and risk levels” Drive safe

  • RememberStay Alive, Don’t Drink & Drive or Toke & Drive

“411”

Directory Services” This is a phone service which will connect you with the Canada 411 Phone Directory.

“311”

Municipal Services” 311 provides citizens with the choice of accessing Municipal information and services. 311 Citizen Services is your single point of contact for local government information and non-emergency services. Whether you’re a resident, a business owner, or a visitor, your connection to The City is at your finger tips. Non-English-speaking callers may request the assistance of an interpreter. The 311 agent will connect with an external interpretive service to assist with the call. The interpretive service offers assistance in more than 150 languages.

“211”

Community Health & Social Services” 211 is a free, confidential, multilingual, 24 hour information and referral system. 211 provides information on government and community based health and social services. 211 is available across the province. 211 can help with day-to-day needs and coping with stressful situations before they escalate into a crisis.

211 can provide support in the following situations:

• When you are looking for home care supports for seniors or individuals with disabilities

• When you are trying to find a job

• When you are looking for affordable childcare

• When you want to know where you can volunteer or donate your second-hand items

• When you don’t know where to go for alcohol and/or drug detoxification

• If you are thinking of post-secondary schooling and need to complete your high school diploma or find out how to apply for student loans

• If you are having a tough time finding enough money for food, rent, and other costs

• If you recently moved to Canada and need support connecting to resources

• If you’re a service provider and looking for resources for a client

“#377” -City of Edmonton Only –

Non Emergency Police Dispatch” – Edmonton Police are trying to reduce the volume of 911 calls to allow true emergency calls to go through unimpeded. With High call volume 911 may be forced to put you on hold, to some during an emergency this could be fatal. To reduce the risk of fatal non connection with 911 the Alberta Government and the Edmonton City Police “EPS” created #377 to handle all Non-Life Threatening Calls that require police services.

#377 in Edmonton Handles:

  • Thefts / Mischief
  • Assaults
  • Break and Enters into homes/businesses
  • Child Abuse/Welfare concerns
  • Disturbances/Noise complaints
  • Missing Persons
  • Sexual Assaults
  • Property damage collisions where vehicles are not drivable
  • Neighbor disputes
  • Family disputes
  • Frauds over $5,000.00
  • Suspicious persons/vehicles
  • Weapons/Gun complaints

“This material is for information purposes only. It should not be used in place of medical advice, instruction, and/or treatment. If you have questions, speak to your doctor or appropriate healthcare provider.”

In any emergency just remember to Protect Yourself!!! Call 911!!! Don’t Waste Time!!!

Learn First Aid Today, Save a Life Tomorrow, let first aid training in Edmonton be your Saving Grace

#FirstAidCourseEdmonton #H2SAlive #BasicLifeSupport #BLS #BLSforHCP #H2sAliveEdmonton #EnformH2S #BCLS #BCLSCourseEdmonton #ACLS #AdvancedCardiovascularLifeSupport #EMR #EmergencyMedicalResponder #ITLS #NineOneOne #EightOneOne #TwoOneOne