Head& Spine Injuries – Part 2 “Moving a Person”

As mentioned in the previous post, Head and Spine injuries are very common and can be fatal, those who also survive injuries from Head or Spinal injuries can have physical difficulties and problems from either brain or spine damage. But what happens if the person is in a dangerous location? Their laying face down in a puddle? or their airway could be obstructed? These scenarios can make the Head / Neck & Spine injury seem even worse. “Should I move them? Will I cause more damage to them? Will I paralyze them if I move them?” These questions will also weigh heavy on the situation that you find. You may “Not” have to move a person to assess their breathing, but “Life over Limb” has always been the motto to keep in mind during these dangerous scenarios. If the person dies from lack of breathing or other emergencies, then the spine was the least of their worries. One little rhyme you can remember is “Always Keep The Head / Neck & Spine, In A Strait Line, Hoping It’s All Fine” never try to move a person with Head or Spine injuries unless their life could be threatened.

Common Reason’s to move a Person
You should always suspect a Head / Neck & Spine injury if the person has been subjected to an Impact / Speed or an Energy Forced against the body with motion, or if you find a unconscious victim from an unknown reason

  • Motor vehicle collisions on a busy highway
  • Fire
  • Wild animals
  • Toxic gas or chemicals

“Always Keep The Head / Neck & Spine, In A Strait Line, Hoping It’s All Fine” never try to move a person with Head or Spine injuries unless their life could be threatened.

How to help with Head & Spine Injuries:

  1. Check the area, once the area is safe, Check the person and ensure the persons ABC’s are present “Airway / Breathing / Circulation” REMEMBER – Wear gloves if available to avoid bodily fluids.
  2. Call 911 and get an AED if you are alone, you suspect a Head / Neck or Spine injury, there is a motor vehicle collision, dangerous environment or the injured persons life could be at risk.
  3. Care for the Head / Neck & Spine Injury by:

Always follow recommendations by your Emergency Response professionals and 911 Dispatch personnel. “Never endanger yourself or the victim, you may “not” need to move or roll the injured person

  • If there are other life threatening injuries, treat those first as quickly as possible with as little movement to the injured person torso.
  • Make sure you move the Head / Neck or Spine as little as possible, even slight movement may cause further injuries.
  • Place your hands on both sides of the injured person’s head. Gently support the person’s head in the position in which you find it until EMS personnel arrive.
  • If the injured person is wearing a helmet, leave it on unless it makes it difficult for you to ensure the ABC’s “Airway, Breathing, Circulation” are present.
  • If the person is laying face down in water / mud or if their airway could be compromised due to their position or injuries, roll the person using the H.A.IN.E.S technique or with multiple partners use the “H.A.IN.E.S Log Roll”, insuring that you keep the head / neck & spine in a the position you find them even as you roll them. Never “straighten” an injured victim suspected of Head / Neck or Spine injuries.
  • Continue care until further help arrives.

“If the person vomits, carefully roll them onto one side to keep the airway clear.”

“How to Roll A Person with a Head / Neck or Spine Injury”

To “Log Roll” a person using the “H.A.IN.E.S Technique” is the best option using multiple First Aid respondents, the more people you have helping the easier it will be to keep a person’s Head / Neck & Spine in the position you found it. “NEVER” Straighten a person’s Head / Neck or Spine if they are bent in an awkward position, only straighten or move the person if their airway could be compromised or their life as a whole is in danger. To perform a log roll on a person you must first learn how to roll someone by yourself, this will make the “Log Roll” easier to accomplish once there are multiple people aiding the casualty.

H.A.IN.E.S – Stands For
High – Arm – In – Endangered – Spine

The H.A.IN.E.S technique is designed to keep the head, neck and spine in a relatively strait line as you roll the person over avoiding further damage or spinal injuries. As we may not know what caused the person’s injuries or emergency once the person is face down remember its often difficult to breath face down on the ground, rolling them over secures the airway and makes it possible to perform CPR or other life saving techniques.

To Roll a Person Over using the “H.A.IN.E.S Technique” :

  1. Kneel Beside the victim and place the victims furthest arm from you above their head.”High – Arm” In Endangered Spine.
  2. Place the arm closest to you against the victims side.
  3. Cross the legs using the leg that is closest to you to overlap hooking the ankles.
  4. Place a hand under the victim’s jaw using your thumb and index finger to grip the jaw firmly letting your last three fingers rest against the side of the neck. Slip your forearm under the victims shoulder to act as a lever.
  5. Grip the victims belt by the hip with your remaining hand, if the victim is not wearing a belt grip the pant material firmly
  6. In unison with both arms “Roll the victim slowly away from you keeping the Head, neck and spine in line. As you roll the victim notice that the head should be resting on the “High-Arm”. Once the victim is on their hip their own body weight should carry them over onto their back “Slow is smooth, and smooth is fast” Make sure to guide the head neck and spine down gently to the ground keeping them in line to avoid potential spinal injuries.
  • Check the Airway to make sure the person is still breathing. If they are not breathing “Start CPR” 30 Compression’s, 2 breaths for all age groups.

In any emergency just remember to Protect Yourself!!! Call 911!!! Don’t Waste Time!!!

Swoop into First Aid and give a breath of Life, let first aid training in Edmonton be your Saving Grace

Saving Grace Medical Academy Ltd

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Head & Spine Injuries – Part 1 “Causes & Prevention”

Head and Spine injuries are very common and can be fatal, those who also survive injuries from Head or Spinal injuries can have physical difficulties and problems from either brain or spine damage. Paralysis “Quadriplegia, Paraplegia, loss of motor skill or function, altered behavior & disorders are also included with damage of this nature.” Even permanent disability is something we must consider in this post. The spine is the electrical transmitter through your body that carries the brains impulses and commands through out your organs, to disrupt this can have serious long lasting effects. Lets focus on common causes, prevention and a basic overview on how to help with Head / Neck & Spine injuries. One little rhyme you can remember is “Always Keep The Head / Neck & Spine, In A Strait Line, Hoping It’s All Finenever try to move a person with Head or Spine injuries unless their life could be threatened.

Common Causes
You should always suspect a Head / Neck & Spine injury if the person has been subjected to an Impact / Speed or an Energy Forced against the body with motion, or if you find a unconscious victim from an unknown reason

  • Motor vehicle collisions
  • Recreation or Contact Sports Injuries
  • Falls
  • Assaults or Violent Acts

Prevention:

  •  Always buckle up, “safety belts & restraints save lives
  • Make sure car seats for Children are approved for your region.
  • Sports protective gear should always be utilized when possible.
  • Before you attempt a new sport or “stunt” check to see what the potential risks are to your own body. Many injuries can be avoided with some foresight.
  • Protect stairways from small children with gates and keep well light.
  • Consult the safety manual for any construction or work equipment that is new to you.
  • Drink responsibly and never combine medications with alcohol.
  • Always follow the directions on over the counter medications & prescription drugs.

Many Head / Neck & Spine Injuries happen in water, to prevent this”
-Look before you dive, insure the water deep enough, some pools at hotels or at home may not be deep enough for diving.”

  • Enter unknown or dark / murky water feet first.
  • Never swim alone, having a buddy will help reduce risk of accidental drowning.
  • When your body-surfing / surfing or wake-boarding keep your arms in front of you to protect your head / neck and keep balance.
  • Never combine drinking and boating, boats are still a motorized vehicle.

Always Keep The Head / Neck & Spine, In A Strait Line, Hoping It’s All Finenever try to move a person with Head or Spine injuries unless their life could be threatened.

How to help with Head & Spine Injuries:

  1. Check the area, once the area is safe, Check the person and ensure the persons ABC’s are present “Airway / Breathing / CirculationREMEMBER – Wear gloves if available to avoid bodily fluids.
  2. Call 911 and get an AED if you are alone, you suspect a Head / Neck or Spine injury, there is a motor vehicle collision, dangerous environment or the injured persons life could be at risk.
  3. Care for the Head / Neck & Spine Injury by:

Always follow recommendations by your Emergency Response professionals and 911 Dispatch personnel. “Never endanger yourself or the victim, you may “not” need to move or roll the injured person

  • If there are other life threatening injuries, treat those first as quickly as possible with as little movement to the injured person torso.
  • Make sure you move the Head / Neck or Spine as little as possible, even slight movement may cause further injuries.
  • Place your hands on both sides of the injured person’s head. Gently support the person’s head in the position in which you find it until EMS personnel arrive.
  • If the injured person is wearing a helmet, leave it on unless it makes it difficult for you to ensure the ABC’s “Airway, Breathing, Circulation” are present.
  • If the person is laying face down in water / mud or if their airway could be compromised due to their position or injuries, roll the person using the H.A.IN.E.S technique or with multiple partners use the “H.A.IN.E.S Log Roll“, insuring that you keep the head / neck & spine in a the position you find them even as you roll them. Never “straighten” an injured victim suspected of Head / Neck or Spine injuries.
  • Continue care until further help arrives.

If the person vomits, carefully roll them onto one side to keep the airway clear.

In any emergency just remember to Protect Yourself!!! Call 911!!! Don’t Waste Time!!!

Swoop into First Aid and give a breath of Life, let first aid training in Edmonton be your Saving Grace

Burns – Part 3 “Thermal Burns”

For our last portion of Burns lets reiterate “Burns are injuries to the body’s tissues caused by either chemicals, electricity, heat or radiation. As burns can come from so many different sources“, this final section will help you focus on the information and see that physical causes of burns or “Burns from an Energy Source“, are “easy“. Once you get the science of energy and how the damage to your body from Thermal Energy “Hot or Cold” is relatively similar in how we treat it. A little slogan to remember about Thermal Energy is “Hot is fast but Cold is Slow“, this little saying will help you see that if a burn from “heat” can happen fast, then we can treat it fast, but just like it takes a while for an ice cube to form “slow” that means that your body will likewise take damage from cold “Slowly“. Again This does not include Dry Ice or any other chemical, as chemicals have an MSDS and we will always refer to the Material Safety Data Sheet to ensure we use the correct methods of treating injuries caused by chemicals.


Within Thermal Burns or Thermal Damage from a heat source to your flesh there are normally 3 levels or degree’s that we will decipher. Just remember that Thermal energy in either direction Hot or Cold will result in levels of severity and symptoms that are very similar but on opposite ends of the spectrum “Fire / Ice“, Lets focus on Heat exposure for this article.


As your flesh heats up to levels where it can sustain damage, your tissue will naturally react as many other substances do when encountering a “Heat Source“. Your flesh will harden and trap the energy created by the Heat Source within it, as we have heard the saying “A burn will continue to burn even after the heat source has been removed.”


First Degree or Superficial burns Damage to the first layers of your tissue comes with redness, pain, possible swelling. Most commonly seen as light sunburn that comes with itching and tenderness of the flesh.


Second Degree or Partial Thickness BurnsDamage to the second layers of flesh and tissues, often seen with cooking burns. Redness, Pain from mild to severe, Possible swelling and Blisters “Never Pop a Blister” are often symptoms with second degree or partial thickness burns.


Third Degree or Full Thickness BurnsDamage to all layers of tissue and flesh, often seen with flash burns. Third degree or Full Thickness Burns may present with redness, pain mild to severe “May not be present at the wort part of the burn due to nerve damage“, swelling, blisters, charred or waxy white flesh, open wounds. Always consult medical professionals for third degree or full thickness burns as infection rates are dramatically increased.


Prevention: Thermal Burns From a Heat Source

  • Keep matches away from children.
  • Store gasoline and other highly flammable liquids outdoors.When you are cooking on the stove, turn the pot handles in and use only the back burners when possible.
  • Keep the hot water tank temperature turned down to 49C (120F)
  • Do not put water on a grease fire “Use baking soda
  • Keep aerosol cans away from heat and open flames-Make sure your fireplace has a sturdy metal screen. Keep flammable materials away from fireplaces.

How to Treat a Burn:Thermal – From a Heat Source

  1. Check the area, once the area is safe, Check the person and ensure the persons ABC’s are present “Airway / Breathing / CirculationREMEMBER – Wear gloves if available to avoid bodily fluids.
  2. Call 911 and get an AED if the burn covers more than 10% of the body, the person is in a great deal of pain, there is charring on the wound, 3rd degree or the burn was caused by a chemical, electrical, radiation source or explosive.
  3. Care for the burn by:Always follow recommendations by your Emergency Response professionals and 911 Dispatch personnel. “Never endanger yourself and maintain a safe distance from the source of the burn & review the MSDS if available
  • Cool the Burn and affected area with cool running water for at least “10 to 20 minutes” Minimum 15 minutes for all chemicals to dilute, remove & neutralize the chemical reaction. “This includes powdered chemicals after you have brushed away the excess before washing away. “Always remove clothing that has been exposed to chemicals to prevent them from sticking to the body” **NOTE** Never remove clothing that has “become stuck or melted” to the skin as the skin may peal off with it, consult a physician instead.
  • For 2nd & 3rd Degree burns with charring or blistering cool only a small area at a time, too quickly may cause the person to go into shock.
  • For 2nd & 3rd Degree burns with charring or blistering If the burned area covers less than 10% of the persons body, cool the burn with running or standing water for at 10 to 20 minutes. If this is too painful or the area cannot be put in water, cover the burn with a cool, moist, sterile dressing or clean cloth to cool it.
  • DO NOT” try to clean a full thickness burn “3rd degree with charring or blistering”
  • After cooling the burn, cover it loosely with a dry, sterile dressing, preferably non-stick gauze.
  • Always Seek Medical Attention for further treatment of 2nd and 3rd degree burns with charring or blistering to avoid complications or infections.

As you can see, the treatment on burns in all 3 sections of this tutorial are the same. Once you master the First Aid technique on how to aid a burn caused from a heat source you can aid anyone who has been exposed to too much heat. Just remember that it does not matter what the name of the burn is, the treatments are often the same “Hot is Fast & Cold is Slow“. Cool Running Water for 10-20 Minutes for all burns and seek medical attention for 2nd & 3rd degree or if their injuries may worsen.


In any emergency just remember to Protect Yourself!!! Call 911!!! Don’t Waste Time!!!


Swoop into First Aid and give a breath of Life, let first aid training in Edmonton be your Saving Grace Medical Academy Ltd


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Burns – Part 2 “Chemical / Electrical & Radiation”

Once again “Burns are injuries to the body’s tissues caused by either chemicals, electricity, heat or radiation. As burns can come from so many different sources” For this section to help you see the information a little more clearly lets focus on physical causes of burns or “Burns from an Energy Source“, this will also enforce how “easy” burns are once you get the science of energy and how the damage to your body from Thermal Energy “Hot or Cold” is relatively similar in how we treat it. A little slogan to remember about Thermal Energy is “Hot is fast but Cold is Slow“, this little saying will help you see that if a burn from “heat” can happen fast, then we can treat it fast, but just like it takes a while for an ice cube to form “slow” that means that your body will likewise take damage from cold “Slowly“. This does not include Dry Ice, as Dry ice has an MSDS and we will always refer to the Material Safety Data Sheet to ensure we use the correct methods of treating injuries caused by chemicals.


Chemical Burns “Wet or Dry“:There are so many chemicals in our society it would be almost impossible to provide an accurate First Aid skill for all of them if we didn’t understand the nature of chemicals and how they work. What we must remember is that many chemicals create a “Chemical Reaction when exposed to a catalyst” this can either be another chemical, substance or fluid. The chemical reaction against the body or flesh creates a burn like symptom that may not stop until the chemical is neutralized or even removed entirely from the flesh. “Always refer to the MSDS Material Safety Data Sheet for chemical exposure along with your 911 Emergency Response coordinator for further treatments”


Electrical Burns:Burns from Electricity are very dangerous and can have many long lasting side effects. As your body uses electricity in many of its natural functions exposure to foreign electrical sources can disrupt your natural electrical balance and cause damage “Heart Rhythm for example“. This is only part of the Electrical burn as electricity always requires 2 things “Entrance & Exit” through the “Path of least resistance“, this means that depending on the type of electricity “Volts or Amps” the person’s organs may be disrupted and damaged “along” the path the electricity takes “Entrance & Exit“. With electrical burns always expect 2 wounds. The severity of the damage will also be linked to the “Amount of electricity the victim was exposed to“. Never approach a victim who is “being” electrocuted, as your body is mainly water you may act as a conductor and be electrocuted yourself even while wearing rubber shoes. “Always consult your 911 Emergency coordinator for further options & treatments”


Radiation Burns:
Our Sun, which has radiant energy, can cause burns to the skin. Other sources of radiant energy that can cause burns are X-Rays, electronics, radiation from radioactive material and radiation treatments used for illness like cancer. Even intense light “welders flash” or reflection from sunlight can burn. “If you were exposed to a radiation “Source” or an object marked or identified as radioactive call 911 immediately and consult your Emergency coordinator for further safety measures to protect yourself, never approach a radiation source without proper training and Personal Protective EquipmentExposure to radiation sources for even a short period may cause long lasting side effects, even death.


Prevention:

  • Electrical Burns-Keep electrical appliances away from water-If an electrical cord is frayed, fix it or get rid of it-If you have young children cover electrical outlets
  • “Lightning Strikes”-As soon as you see or hear a storm, stop swimming and boating and get away from the water because water conducts electricity. -Go inside the closest building. If there is no building nearby, get inside a car and roll up the windows.-Stay away from the telephone “Cell phone“, except in an emergency. If you are caught outside stay away from telephone poles and tall trees.-Stay away from farm equipment and small metal vehicles such as motorcycles, bicycles and golf carts.-Stay away from wire fences, clotheslines, metal pipes and rails, and other things that conduct electricity.-If you are with a group of people, stay several meters apart from each other.

How to Treat a Burn:Chemical / Electrical & Radiation

  1. Check the area, once the area is safe, Check the person and ensure the persons ABC’s are present “Airway / Breathing / CirculationREMEMBER – Wear gloves if available to avoid bodily fluids.
  2. Call 911 and get an AED if the burn covers more than 10% of the body, the person is in a great deal of pain, there is charring on the wound, 3rd degree or the burn was caused by a chemical, electrical, radiation source or explosive.
  3. Care for the burn by:Always follow recommendations by your Emergency Response professionals and 911 Dispatch personnel.Never endanger yourself and maintain a safe distance from the source of the burn & review the MSDS if available
  • Cool the Burn and affected area with cool running water for at least “10 to 20 minutes” Minimum 15 minutes for all chemicals to dilute, remove & neutralize the chemical reaction. “This includes powdered chemicals after you have brushed away the excess before washing away. “Always remove clothing that has been exposed to chemicals to prevent them from sticking to the body” **NOTE** Never remove clothing that has “become stuck or melted” to the skin as the skin may peal off with it, consult a physician instead.
  • For 2nd & 3rd Degree burns with charring or blistering cool only a small area at a time, too quickly may cause the person to go into shock.
  • For 2nd & 3rd Degree burns with charring or blistering If the burned area covers less than 10% of the persons body, cool the burn with running or standing water for at 10 to 20 minutes. If this is too painful or the area cannot be put in water, cover the burn with a cool, moist, sterile dressing or clean cloth to cool it.
  • “DO NOT” try to clean a full thickness burn “3rd degree with charring or blistering
  • After cooling the burn, cover it loosely with a dry, sterile dressing, preferably non-stick gauze. 
  • Always Seek Medical Attention for further treatment of 2nd and 3rd degree burns with charring or blistering to avoid complications or infections.

Notes on Electrical Burns:

  • Look for two burns” the entry and exit points. They will be open wounds that may need to be treated.”
  • Always” treat the person exposed to electricity as if he or she might have a head and/or spine injury.

Notes on Chemical Burns

  • Always flush the affected area with “Cool / Running / Water” to Remove the Chemical, Dilute the Chemical & slow the chemical reaction rate. 
  • Always refer to your MSDS and use your WHMIS & GHS training

Notes on Radiation Burns

  • Never approach a radiation source or material that has been designated radioactive.
  • If you suspect radiation exposure consult your emergency department immediately! Then seek Medical Attention!

In any emergency just remember to Protect Yourself!!! Call 911!!! Don’t Waste Time!!!
Swoop into First Aid and give a breath of Life, let first aid training in Edmonton be your Saving Grace.


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Burns – Part 1 “Fire Safety”

Burns are injuries to the body’s tissues caused by either chemicals, electricity, heat or radiation. As burns can come from so many different sources we will break them down into sections to help you see the vastness of information, but also brings to light how “easy” burns are once you get the science of energy and how the damage to your body from Thermal Energy “Hot or Cold” is relatively similar in how we treat it. A little slogan to remember about Thermal Energy is “Hot is fast but Cold is Slow“, this little saying will help you see that if a burn from “heat” can happen fast, then we can treat it fast, but just like it takes a while for an ice cube to form “slow” that means that your body will likewise take damage from cold “Slowly“. “This does not include Dry Ice, Please refer to Chemical Burns” One more question we get during this portion is “What is the most common cause of death during a burn?” The answer is always “Infection“, we will bring more light on why in the next posts associated with Burns.
Common Causes of fire in the home:

  • Insecure combustible materials ie: gasoline, hair spray, oil

  • Unattended Cooking, or cooking oils secured inappropriately

  • Smoking in the home without securing “Butts” or Smoking in bed.

  • Faulty Heating Equipment or electrical devices

  • Fire Pits not secured or inspected properly

  • Furnace & Fire Place chimney’s or flue not cleaned properly

Prevention:

“Always follow safety guidelines, many Fire preventing methods have been put together by Occupational Health and Safety and your local Fire Departments for your own personal protection.”

  • Store Chemicals / fuels / oils and compressed cylinders appropriately as stated in the MSDS or manufacturers specs.

  • Never Keep cooking oils “Above” the stove, if there is a fire on the stove this may act as an accelerant”.

  • Have fire pits inspected and licensed by your local licensing inspector to ensure your homes safety.

  • Never keep your BBQ or other heat sources against a wall / siding or or other flammable materials.

  • Have a plan, know your exits and help your family understand the benefits of an “Emergency Response Plan” play / practice them with children to keep everyone safe.

  • Making sure you have working smoke detectors in the hallways near any sleeping areas, at the top of stairs, and in every bedroom. in some provinces and territories, legislation dictates where smoke detectors must be located.

  • Never leave a fire pit / place unattended “Embers can reignite”

  • Ensure that Fire extinguishers are kept up to date

Fire Safety Tip’s

Fires are caused by numerous things found commonly in the home: Heating equipment, appliances, electrical wiring and cooking. Having a Fire Safety Plan or even an ERP “Emergency Response Plan” is always a good idea for any family.
Plan & Practice a fire escape route with your family by:

  • Sketch a floor plan of your home that shows all the rooms, doors, windows, and hallways.

  • Draw arrows that show how to escape from each room. If possible, show two ways to get out of each room. Planning to escape sleeping areas is most important because most fires happen at night.

  • Plan where everyone will meet after leaving the building.

  • Assign someone to call the fire department after leaving the burning building.- When you travel, take a moment to find out the local emergency number and keep it on hand.

  • If you stay in a hotel, learn escape routes and emergency procedures in case of a fire.

How to Escape from a Fire:

  1. Check the area, if there is smoke, get low and crawl to get out of the building quickly, “Never return to a burning building” Make sure children are able to open windows, go down a ladder, or lower themselves to the ground. “Play / Practice with them**NOTE**– If you are unable to get out, “stay in the room“. Stuff towels, rags, or clothing around doors and vents. If you have access to water, wet the materials first.

  2. Call 911Even if rescuers are already outside, tell the 911 dispatcher exactly where you are”.

  3. Care for yourself and family by staying calm, get low “Avoid Smoke“, get out by crawling. Follow your emergency response plan as best as you are able. Protect yourself “Never return to a burning building as you may be overcome by smoke, heat, or explosion”. Always follow recommendations by your Emergency Response professionals and 911 Dispatch personnel.If you are on fire “STOP, DROP & ROLL

In any Emergency just Remember to Protect Yourself!!! Call 911!!!      Don’t Waste Time!!!
Swoop into First Aid and give a breath of Life, let first aid training in Edmonton be your Saving Grace.

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Wound Care – Part 12 “Penetrating or Blunt Chest Injuries”

Wound Care has many parts, lets now look at Penetrating Chest Injuries and the complications they can cause. As we have learned so far chest Injuries can cause breathing emergencies. If the lungs are punctured or damaged by a penetrating object and if the object goes through the rib cage it may let “Air” or “blood” into the chest through the wound. This may force the lungs to inflate inadequately and lead a potentially life threatening emergency such as a “Hemothorax” a “Pneumothorax” or a “Flail Chest

Common Causes:

  • Sudden Falls onto Objects blunt or sharp
  • Industrial incidents involving sharp, blunt or rotating machinery.
  • Any force strong enough to penetrate or create a wound great enough to damage the chests integrity.
  • Altercations involving weapons such as knives or guns.
  • Motor Vehicle accidents

Prevention:
Always follow safety guidelines, many injury preventing methods have been put together by Occupational Health and Safety for your personal protection.”
Chest injuries can often be prevented by good safety practices in all areas of life, this may include:

  • Driving Motor Vehicles – Working around the home
  • Participating in aggressive sports recreational activities
  • Performing occupational activities with heavy, rotating or industrial equipment.

What it Looks Like:

  • Difficulty Breathing
  • Bleeding from an open chest wound
  • Bubbling or a sucking sound coming from the wound in the chest
  • Severe pain on the injury site
  • Coughing up blood
  • Blood bubbling from the wound
  • Gasping with tightness or shortness of breath
  • Shock
  • Guarded Shallow breaths
  • Bruising on the chest or on the injury itself
  • Crunching or grinding sounds in the chest with deformity
  • Uneven rising of the chest during breathing “Flail Chest”

How to Help:

  1. Check the area, once the area is safe, Check the person and ensure the persons ABC’s are present “Airway / Breathing / Circulation”    REMEMBER – Wear gloves if available to avoid bodily fluids. **If the object is still in the wound “DO NOT REMOVE IT“, however if the object prevents the casualty from breathing “Remove it Immediately” the casualty must be able to breath**
  2. Call 911 if you suspect the injuries could be severe, if there are airway could be blocked or there is excessive bleeding. Always call 911 for a penetrating chest wound, there could be internal injuries that may lead to the situation becoming fatal. This may also include Spinal injuries due to the force impacted against the chest.
  3. Care for the Chest injury by:

***Only remove the object or the Victim from the object if their Airway could be compromised***

  1. Have the person rest in a comfortable position
  2. For a “Penetrating Chest Wound” cover the wound with a dressing that will stop air from getting into the chest. In many first aid kits this bandage is labeled “3 Sided Occlusive Bandage” this is specific bandage for “Penetrating Chest Wounds“. Simply tape the bandage in place with the opening in a position to allow the blood to drain away. Always consult your 911 Dispatcher for more information on current 2015 guidelines and what you may be able to do to help.
  3. Perform a Secondary Survey “Second Chance to find injuries” and treat any non life threatening conditions. With a “Flail Chest” often having the casualty hold something bulky against their chest “Such as a rolled up towel” may help hold the rib cage in place.

4) Continue to provide care until further help arrives “EMS Personnel

Pneumothorax & Hemothorax
A Pneumothorax is a condition where “Air” enters the chest cavity from the wound site but does not enter the lung. The air in the chest cavity presses against the lung, causing it to collapse or be restricted from expansion. A Hemothorax in like condition is where “Blood” accumulates in the chest cavity from the wound site but does not enter the lung. Because blood and air take up space in the chest cavity, the lungs are unable to expand effectively, thus leading to damage or limiting respiration’s and becoming potentially fatal injury.

Flail Chest
A Flail Chest is a condition where 3 or more ribs are fratured in two or more places releasing the rib fragments from the chest wall, resulting in a “Flail Chest” The segment will move opposite that of the normal chest movement with visible deformity. Breathing with a Flail Chest may be extremely Painful and difficult and often does not allow for adequate oxygenation of the body, The severity of the condition and may become fatal if there are underlying conditions or internal injuries associated with the Chest Injury.

In any emergency just remember to Protect Yourself!!! Call 911!!! Don’t Waste Time!!!

Swoop into First Aid and give a breath of Life, let first aid training in Edmonton be your Saving Grace.
 

Wound Care – Part 11 “Crush Injuries”

To continue on with our Wound Care First Aid technique’s lets focus on Crush or Crushing Injuries. A “Crush Injury” occurs when there is a great deal of pressure on a part of the body or the body as a whole. This injury can be caused by numerous objects or even substances like “Grain in a Grain Silo, Sand, large heavy objects or even swaddling an infant to tight“. Grain Entrapment & Crush Syndrome are also something to consider as they are closely related to crush injuries and can be fatal, always take Crush Injuries seriously as there may be hidden or “Internal Injuries / Bleeding” that you may not be aware of.


Common Causes:

  • Often caused by being squeezed between two heavy or immobile objects, or having a large amount of pressure forced against the body by an unmovable substance like grain or sand.

Prevention:

  • Be familiar with your surroundings
  • Be familiar with your equipment and get trained in its proper use.
  • Make sure your equipment is in good, safe, working order.
  • Follow safety procedures
  • STAY ALERT
  • Never let children play around Grain Silos, Construction Sites, or Sand Pits

What it Looks Like:

  • Person trapped or still being crushed under objects or between two objects.
  • Possible wounds that look depressed or split at the edges.
  • Deformity
  • Signs of internal bleeding
  • Shock
  • Pain, tightness in the chest with shortness of breath.

How to Help:

  1. Check the area, once the area is safe, Check the person and ensure the persons ABC’s are present “Airway / Breathing / CirculationREMEMBER – Wear gloves if available to avoid bodily fluids. **If the object or substance is crushing the persons head, neck, chest or abdomen or they can not breath “Remove it Immediately“, if the object is only crushing a limb “Leave the object where it is until EMS Personnel arrive.
  2. Call 911 if you suspect the injuries could be severe, if there are airway could be blocked or there is excessive bleeding. Always call 911 for an crushing injury, there could be internal injuries that could lead to the situation becoming fatal.
  3. Care for the Crush Injuries by:***Only remove the object or the Victim from the object if their Airway could be compromised***
  • Never Transport the victim on your own from a Crushing Injure, always wait for Advanced Medical Professionals to assist in removing the victim from the object or objects. The persons condition may worsen even after removing the object, this may lead to “Crushing Syndrome” and may be fatal. Always consult Medical Professionals.

Crushing Syndrome

  • Crush Syndrome is a compression of extremities or other parts of the body that causes muscle swelling and/or neurological disturbances in the affected areas of the body, this may lead to systemic manifestations or even systemic shock that can become fatal. Advanced Medical Professionals are always needed for Crushing Syndrome and should never be taken lightly. Amputation of the trapped body part may also be necessary, other injuries associated with Crushing Syndrome may include “Compartmental Syndrome

Grain Entrapment

  • Grain Entrapment is when a person is submerged under or partially submerged into a mass amount of grain “Fell in a grain Silo”. The movement of the grain can restrain the victim and make escape impossible without assistance, plus the added weight of the grain may prevent the victim from breathing and can lead to suffocation. For these reasons it is never permissible to allow children to play around grain silo’s and you should always use the buddy system to ensure there is a second way to escape.

In any emergency just remember to Protect Yourself!!! Call 911!!! Don’t Waste Time!!!


Swoop into First Aid and give a breath of Life, let first aid training in Edmonton be your Saving Grace.


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Wound Care – Part 10 “Amputations”

An amputation is a complete or partial severing of a body part from the body as a whole, this can be and is mainly classified as a serious injury and should always require further medical attention. “Although there may be vast amounts of damage to the tissues, bleeding is usually not severe”, the body will protect itself even during times of severe emergencies. However, bleeding can increase with time and can become a life threatening event on its own and must be taken care of as well as the amputated body part. The most common question we hear from students in our First Aid Course is “Can the body part be put back?”, unfortunately there are many factors that do come into account for any body part that has been removed, age, time, athleticism, amount of damage all become factors against the body part. Medical professional’s and technology have advanced in the last few years and chances of re-attaching a body part has improved “But is never guaranteed”.

Common Causes:

  • Any force great enough to partially or completely cut or tear away a limp, body part, or piece of the body from the body as a whole.

Prevention:

  • Wear PPE or Personal Protective Equipment when available
  • Follow safety procedures
  • Take precautions around rotating or sharp equipment, tools or objects.

What it Looks Like:

  • Missing body parts
  • Shock
  • Pain
  • A part of the body partially or completely disconnected from the rest of the body
  • Bleeding

How to Help:

  1. Check the area, once the area is safe, Check the person and ensure the persons ABC’s are present “Airway / Breathing / CirculationREMEMBER – Wear gloves if available to avoid bodily fluids.
  2. Call 911 if you suspect the injuries could be severe, if there are airway could be blocked or there is excessive bleeding. Always call 911 for an amputation, this will let the hospital know your coming!
  3. Care for the Amputation by:

***Victim Comes First***

  • Control bleeding, apply Direct Pressure to the wound, use Pressure Bandages to help slow the blood flow, use Pressure Points by placing a firm object in the joint above the amputation. “Never apply a tourniquet” Tourniquet’s should be applied by professionals or under the guidance of a Trained Medical Professional like a 911 dispatcher.

***Body Part***

  1. Wrap it & Strap It” Retrieve the body part and wrap it up in a clean cloth, “Never wash the body part” The body part will be cleaned by a physician and contaminants will be removed, washing the body part may render the body part unsuitable for reattachment.
  2. Bag it & Tag it” Place the amputated body part in a “seal-able” plastic bag, this will prevent further contamination. If there is time write the victims name on the bag to prevent loss of the body part at the medical facility. Make sure the body part goes with the injured person to the hospital
  3. Keep it Cool BUT not Cold” Keep the amputated body part cool by placing the bag on ice, be careful not to let the body part freeze. “The body part should not freeze if wrapped & strapped

If the limb or part is only “Partially” disconnected from the body, put the limb back in place and treat the injury as an “Open Wound or Fracture

In any emergency just remember to Protect Yourself!!! Call 911!!! Don’t Waste Time!!!

Swoop into First Aid and give a breath of Life, let first aid training in Edmonton be your Saving Grace.

#Amputation #FirstAidTrainingCourseEdmonton #H2SAlive #BasicLifeSupportBLSforHCPs #H2SAliveCourseEdmonton #BCLSCourseEdmonton

Wound Care – Part 9 “Infection & Disease Control”

For the 9th part of Wound Care we will focus on Infections, Diseases and ways to prevent or control them once they have begun. “An infection is a condition caused by the invasion of the body by germ” these germs can be bacteria in nature or even viral. During our First Aid Course we run into many questions about infection & Disease Control, we consider disease control such a high priority that we even offer a course designed specifically to address Diseases “Blood-Born Pathogens“. During a First Aid we will advise all rescuers to “Consider ALL patients/victims as infectious” & always avoid bodily fluids during First Aid!

Common Cause’s of Infection:

  • Foreign bodies like dirt, or other things containing germs that get into a wound

Routs of Entry for Disease:

  • Direct Contact “When you touch the blood of someone infected
  • Indirect Contact “When you touch something used by an infected individual
  • Airborne Transmission “When an infected person sneezes, sending germs into the air and you breath them in
  • Vector-Borne “When a mosquito bites an infected person then bites you.”

Prevention:

  • Wear PPE or Personal Protective Equipment when available
  • Always wash your hands before and after giving first aid.
  • Whenever possible “WEAR GLOVES” avoid bodily fluids
  • Use sterile dressings when caring for wounds
  • Keep your immunizations up to date” if you have a wound and have not received a “Tetanus” shot in more than “Five Years” seek medical attention. REMEMBER “Immunizations ARE beneficialIT IS A MYTH that immunizations cause birth defects.
  • Use antibiotic ointment on a wound to help reduce risk of infection
  • keep wounds clean

**HAND SANITIZERS** and alcohol rubs must NOT replace hand washing, if you use hand sanitizer its a good practice to wash your hands after the THIRD use!

What Infection Looks Like:
-Redness -Red Streaks moving away from the wound within the skin – Pus -Heat or warmth – Fever – Tenderness – Swelling – Nausea – Discolored flesh

How to Help:

  1. Check the area, once the area is safe, Check the person and ensure the persons ABC’s are present “Airway / Breathing / CirculationREMEMBER – Wear gloves if available to avoid bodily fluids.
  2. Call 911 or if you suspect the infection could be severe like meningitis, whooping cough or if the victim has a fever above 102F / 39C. Or if their airway could be blocked by mucus or an infected organ such as tonsils. “In Alberta you can call “811” as well to speak to a registered nurse for a consult, they may give you options or even recommend further medical attention.”
  3. Care for the infection by:
  • Keep the wound clean, if the infection spreads, changes color or begins to smell seek medical attention.
  • Change bandages frequently and let wounds dry to reduce chance of infection.

**BABY OR CHILD WITH A FEVER OVER 30C (102F)**

  • Young children or babies with a high fever can have seizures also known as “Febrile Seizures“. In most cases these are not life-threatening and they do not last long. To prevent “febrile seizures
  1. Give the child medication recommended by the child’s doctor to reduce the fever.
  2. Give the child a sponge bath with water that is room temperature “Not icy cold
  3. Provide continual careMany Children may have a Febrile Seizure while sleeping and unattended

Sense these steps only “Temporarily” lower the temperature, seek further medical attention.

In any emergency just remember to Protect Yourself!!! Call 911!!! Don’t Waste Time!!!

Swoop into First Aid and give a breath of Life, let first aid training in Edmonton be your Saving Grace.

Wound Care – Part 8 “Ear Injuries”

For the 8th installment of Wound Care we will focus on Ear Injuries and the potential risks that may come with them, Ear injuries may look minor, but there may be some serious complications if they go untreated. Common questions we hear within our first aid course are “What if there’s an odd colored liquid coming from the ear? Should I pull something out of the ear if its lodged in place? Can bugs crawl into my ear while I’m sleeping?” Lets focus on the basics and fill in the questions as we go….

Common Causes:

  • Impact against the ear with any force
  • Cuts or tears
  • Head Injury
  • Loud Noises “Explosions / Gun Shots / Machinery / Tools
  • Objects or substances in the ear “May be lodged

Prevention:

  • Wear PPE or Personal Protective Equipment when available
  • During Sports activities wear a helmet if ones is recommended
  • Proper hearing protection is recommended when around loud noises or equipment “Concerts / Lawn Mowers / Chainsaws

What it Looks Like:

  • Blood or “Other” fluid from with the ear
  • Hearing Problems “ringing in the ear or high pitch squeal
  • Sudden pain in the ear that may be intense
  • Swelling or deformity

How to Help:

  1. Check the area, once the area is safe, Check the person and ensure the persons ABC’s are present “Airway / Breathing / CirculationREMEMBER – Wear gloves if available to avoid bodily fluids.
  2. Call 911 if you suspect the injuries could be severe like head neck or spine injuries, if their airway could be blocked or there is an impaled object in or near the ear, or if “the ear is leaking a clear fluid that dabs yellow on tissue” This may be an indicator of internal injury within the head “Seek Medical Attention Immediately” Also seek medical attention immediately if the ear injury is from an “Explosion” or “Diving” injury.
  3. Care for the Ear Injury by:

**Foreign Object / Substance in the Ear with NO head and/or spine injury & the object looks like it can be easily removed**

  •  if you can see the object and it looks easy to remove without causing further damage, remove it by tilting the head to the affected side, then gently tap above the ear to loosen the object.
  • Attempt to grasp the object “Tweezers may be needed” and put it out.

**If the person has a potentially serious head and or spine injury with blood or other fluid is in the ear canal or draining from the ear**

  • Led the ear drain. “DO NOT” apply direct pressure. “DO NOT” move the person if possible
  • Cover the ear “Lightlywith a sterile/clean dressing
  • Provide Continual Care until EMS personnel arrive.

Always seek further medical attention with objects that have been Impaled into the Body.

With any head injury it is always a good idea to seek further medical attention to avoid complications that may include the Head / Neck or Spine.

In any emergency just remember to Protect Yourself!!! Call 911!!! Don’t Waste Time!!!

Swoop into First Aid and give a breath of Life, let first aid training in Edmonton be your Saving Grace.

‪#‎EarInjuries‬ ‪#‎FirstAidTraningCourseEdmonton‬ ‪#‎H2SAlive‬ ‪#‎BasicLifeSupportBLSforHCPs‬ ‪#‎H2SAliveCourseEdmonton‬ #‪#‎BCLSCourseEdmonton‬